Chapter 4 Book Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Lecture 20 Stereotyping & Prejudice Group-Based Bias Affect Prejudice Behaviour Discrimination Cognition Stereotyping Outgroup Homogeneity Cognitive Component: Stereotypes Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members Schemes used to categorize complex social groups Affective Component: Prejudice A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on their membership in that group (not because you dont like something they did) Behavioural Component: Discrimination Unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group Biased only based on them belong to group Stereotyping Stereotype across time: o Existed since the existence of society (earliest humans); works as mental shortcuts o Not new; but the content of those stereotypes are relevant to current situation o Katz & Braly (1933): Phase 1 of Princeton Trilogy: in many cases, a high degree of consensus (agreement) Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes First time stereotype was study and gave basis to it o Gilbert (1951) Transition after WWII o Karlins et al. (1969) Transition during Cold War o Conclusion: Stereotypes are generally stable over time Stereotypes are also contextually bound Mechanisms: o Usually broad and generalized Trait based stereotype (internal disposition is the most common type) Can also be dependent on context (If ____, Then _____ ) [The context makes a different from what you expect of a person) Who Stereotypes? o Most people have knowledge of cultural stereotypes o Factors affecting stereotype use: Egalitarian ideologies (humans are equal and should be treated equally) Automatic aspect of stereotyping: o Automatically activated since we all know what stereotypes are
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