Chapter 5 Book Notes

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Health Studies
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives Chapter 5: Aging of the Skin and Musculoskeletal System - Skin provides the covering for the body and is the first line of defense against bacteria, viruses and other types of environmental damage - Bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles o Make up the musculoskeletal system provides shape and support for the body, make movement and adjustments in positions possible and protect the internal vital organs from external trauma - Overview o Present normal age changes o Describe disease processes o Risk factors o Factors that promote optimal aging Skin Basic Anatomy and Physiology - Function o Front line of defense against harmful environmental influences o Critical in temperature maintenance o Aids in homeostasis - Basic Anatomy o Largest and most visible organ o Outermost layer of skin is called the epidermis o Second layer is the dermis o Last layer of subcutaneous fat Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives o Hair follicles, nail beds and nails, and sweat and sebaceous glands are embedded in the various layers - Epidermis consists most of o keratinocytes (90%) Cells that protect the skin from outside harm and help it heal if it is injured Keratinocytes are found deep in the epidermis Also necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D (used in the absorption of calcium) o Melanocytes 2% Produce melanin for keratinocytes and give colour to the skin Exposure to the sun increase in melanin which can protect the skin from damage o Langerhans cells 1% Important for immune system Along with the mast cells found in the dermal layer, they respond to toxic allergic stimuli - Dermis o Consists largely of collagen and elastin tissue o Provides strength and elasticity to the skin o Blood vessels, lymphatic tissue, and nerves are imbedded as are the sweat glands and hair follicles o Mast cells Responsible for the skins ability to respond to allergens - Subcutaneous fat
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