Chapter 10 Book Notes

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Health Studies
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives Chapter 10: Stress, Coping, and Health - Stress is a major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the aging process. - Through the Neuroendocrine system, psychosocial stress can have adverse effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. - Older adults may be vulnerable to the effects of physical stress - Evidence that stress can toughen or strengthen us through heat shock proteins and social ties - Genetic based mechanisms that protect against stress at the cellular level: DNA repair mechanisms, antioxidants, and heat shock proteins Stress Three different major ways to describe stress: STRESS AS A PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE Classic Theories - Cannon (1915) was the first physiologist to systematically describe the physiological effects of stress. He noted that cats exposed to barking dogs would respond with a rush of epinephrine or adrenaline into their systems. - The sympathetic nervous system (SNS)- reacts to stress in two ways o Originates in the spinal column (preganglionic nerves) and radiate to the target organs (postganglionic nerves) o Preganglionic are cholinergic they secrete the neurontransmitter aceteylcholine o Postganglionic nerves use norepinephrine o Sympathetic nerves works on the: the heart, bronchi, gut, kidney, blood vessels, sweat glands and piloerector muscles o In sympatheticadrenal medulla (SAM)- nerves radiate to adrenal medulla- which secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noadrenaline) into blood [stimulates organ muscles and blood vessels] o Epinephrine- more powerful cardiac stimulant, increases metabolic rate o Norepinephrine- stimulates the peripheral vascular system & raises blood pressure o Sympathetic activation- increases heart rate, respiration rates, dilate pupils, diverts blood flow & increases blood pressure [readies organism for physical activity] o Parasympathetic NS- brings the body back to homeostasis after stress or strenuous physical activity o Prolonged increases in blood pressure and blood clotting would eventually result in hypertension and cardiovascular disease o Hypothalamus secrets corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CHA) which activates the posterior lobe of the pituitary
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