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Canada (161,663)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Health Illness and Optimal Aging Biological and Psychological Perspectives Carolyn M Aldwin Diane F Gilmer Foreword by James BirrenChapter 6 Aging of the Internal Organ Systems Cardiovascular System Basic Anatomy and Physiology y The cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system It sends supplies such as fluids nutrients hormones oxygen and antibodies to tissues in the body while at the same time removing waste products such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions The system is composed of the heart blood vessels arteries arterioles capillaries veins and venules and blood In general arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to the heart y Blood is a highly complex fluid composed of water red and white blood cells and platelets as well as nutrients such as fat globules carbohydrates and proteins y It is perfused by gases such as oxygen carbon dioxide and nitrogen y Blood also carries electrolytes to help maintain the acidbase balance and a host of other chemicals including hormones neurotransmitters and various other peptides necessary to regular homeostasis cognition movement and every other function of the body GuytonHall 1996 y As signal moves down contraction of the cardiac or heart muscle occurs y Contraction of the heart is called systole and relaxation diastole y Asystole means there is no heartbeat y The first and loudest sound of a heartbeat lub is when the valves between the atria and ventricles close and the ventricles contract y The second softer beat dub occurs with the closure of the valves between the ventricles and the large arteries pulmonary and aorta y Only the arteries reflect the heartbeat however veins do no have the benefit of the heart as a pump to help push the blood along y As notes earlier the veins are more like a holding reservoir for blood than pressurized tubes y To help keep blood moving up to the heart and to prevent it from pooling in the extremities some veins have valves for example the great saphenous found in the back of the legs y These valves consist of tissue inside the vein wall that extends into the vein like a flapper valve forcing the blood to flow in only one direction toward the heart y In addition skeletal muscle movement puts pressure on the veins to keep the blood moving This whole system is referred to as the venous pump
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