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Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

7 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Anna Walsh

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Chapter 9The Interface Between Physical and Mental Health PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND DISEASE y The ancient Greek philosopher and physician Hippocrates developed a system of medicine based on the belief that substances called humors influenced both personality and health y As extended by Galen the four primary humors were blood melancholy black bile choler yellow bile and phlegm y People with an excess of bile were thought to be prone to depression and degenerative disease whereas those with too much choler were angry and bittery Blood led to a ruddy sanguine personality and phlegm was thought to cause apathy thy In the 18 century Ren Descartes eponymous author of the famed Cartesian dualism posited that the mind and the body were separate entities connected only tenuously through the pineal gland y Sigmund Freud is credited with developing the first Western scientific theory of mind and he believed that eventually psychological phenomena would be traced back to neurophysiological events y Health psychology tends to be oriented toward basic research whereas behavioral medicine focuses more on clinical applications but in truth the distinction between the two is blurred y Bidirectional refers to a reciprocal relationship between physical and psychological health transactional refers to a continuous process of change among multiple variables y In keeping with a transactional perspective we use the term personality processes to acknowledge that the psychological factors studies in connection with health and aging include traits affective states psychological symptoms and beliefs and attitudes y As risk factors the three primary negative emotions that have been linked to the development of disease and its progression are hostility depression and anxiety while control self efficacy optimism and emotional stability may have protective effects Psychological Risk Factors and Health Hostility y There are two primary ways of assessing TABP Type A Behavior Pattern The first is through the Structured Interview SI The second way of assessing TABP is through selfreport questionnaires such as the Jenkins Activity Survery JAS y It was found that the JAS did not predict heart disease very well so researchers went back to the SI to determine what part of TABP was most associated with CHD y After a great deal of research the general consensus was that the hostility component is the best predictor of CDH Thus other scales such as the CookeMedley 1954 Hostility Index from the MMPI began to be used to predict CHD
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