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HLTC22H3 (102)
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HLTB01 Ch9 notes

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Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Chapter 9The interface between physical and mental healthPersonality Processes and Disease Hippocrates developed a system based on the belief that substances called humors influenced both personality and health Galenfour primary humors were blood melancholy black bile choler yellow bile and phlegm 1 Blood excessruddy and sanguine personality2 Melancholy Black bileprone to depression and degenerative disease 3 Choler yellow bile angry and bitter 4 Phlegm cause apathyDescartes caused dualism that said the mind and the body were separate entities connected through the pineal glandPsychosomatic illnesses were not real but rather were in a person headHealth psychology and behavioural medicine are founded on the notion that the mind and the body are intimately connected in a bidirectional or even transactional mannerBidirectional refers to a reciprocal relationship between physical and psychological health Transactional refers to a continuous process such as downward spirals are good examples of transactional processesEg Person with emphysema may continue to smoke because stimulating effect of nicotine helps to combat the fatigue associated with the disease and because nicotine may combat the depression she or he feels Short term good long term badPersonality processes to acknowledge that the psychological factors studied in connection with health and aging include traits affective states psychological symptoms and beliefs and attitudesNegative emotions linked to development of disease is hostility depression and anxiety Positive self efficiacy or control emotional stability have protective affects Hostility o Comparable to traditional risk factors such as high cholesterol high BP and cigarette smoking o Hostility achievement motivationsl time urgency and explosive speech pattens are dubbed TYPE A personality later changed to TYPE A BehaviourPattern TABP o Assessing TABP througha Structured Interview SIType A people annoyed by people whom thye perceive to be slow and tend to interrupt and finish sentences They also get very angry and hostile when challenged especially in social situationsbSelf Report Questionnaires hostility best predictor of CHD o Individuals higher in hostility are more likely to develop CHD and also exhibit higher rates of overall mortality o Two and one half times more likely to develop CHD people with hostility men o Relationship between hostility and CHD is stronger for men than for women and may be stronger for younger than for older peopleo Type A and coronary artery disease CAD was strongest for those in their 20s and 40s o After age 56 Type B were actually higher probably due to survivor effects
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