Textbook Notes (363,074)
Canada (158,173)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

HLTB01 Chapter 10 Stress, Coping, and Health Stress -3 major ways of defining stress: -1) Physiological state of the organism (sometimes referred to as a strain) -2) Characteristic of the environment (or stressor) -3) View stress as a transaction between the person and the environment Stress as a Physiological State Classic Theories -Canon was the first physiologist to systematically describe the physiological effects of stress -Canon posited that the perception of a threat activated the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which readies the organism for fight or flight -SNS reacts to stress in 2 ways: 1) the sympathetic nerves directly enervate the heart, the bronchi in the lungs, the gut, and the kidney;2) the sympatheticadrenal medulla (SAM) system secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood, which also stimulates the organs muscles and blood vessels -once the threat is resolved, parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activation returns the body to homeostasis by decreasing heart rate and respiratory rates, as well as BP and returning blood flow to the internal organs -the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation is a slower but more sustained response to a wide variety of stressors, chemical toxins, and psychosocial problems -stress can affect the functioning of nearly every organ system in the body, either through SNS or HPA activation -Selye dualistic process has three stages -1) alarm stage: fightflight and involves the adrenal glands as well as SNS activation -2) adaptation: a return to physiological homeostasis (due in part to PNS activation) or enhanced functioning -3) exhaustion: the organism may fall ill or die if the stress continues this was a result of the bodys supplies of hormones becoming depleted Modern Theories -there are individual differences in stress reactions -Mason there are different stressor profiles -the activation of the HPA is an attempt to buffer the prolonged SNS activation -Sapolsky proposed that Selye was wrong stressed organisms do not die because their hormones become depleted, but because of the toxic effects of the stress response itself -chronic stress (PTSD) is associated with lower levels of cortisol thus, chronic stress can deplete glucocoticoids -men and women differ in their preference for company or solitude while awaiting a stressful procedure -could be a three-dimensional response to stress: fight-flight-affiliate Stress and the Development of Chronic Illness -stress can result in heart disease, cancer, CVD risk factors -stress appears to show a relationship between development of certain types of tumors (breast cancer) www.notesolution.com
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