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HLTC22H3 (102)
Dan Silver (21)
Chapter 9

hltb01 chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Dan Silver

Chapter 9 The interface between physical and mental health Personality processes and disease y The idea that personality characteristics are related to health and illness has been longlived y Hippocrates developed a system of medicine based on the belief that substances called humors influenced both personality and health Galen divided this into four primary humors o Blood o Melancholy black bile o Choler yellow bile o Phlegm y People with an excess of bile were thought to be prone to depression and degenerative disease whereas those with too much choler were angry and bitter y Blood led to a ruddy sanguine personality y Phlegm was thought to cause apathy thy Rene Descartes in the 18 century posited that the mind and the body became or were separate entitiesy Sigmund Freud is credited with developing the first western scientific theory of mind and he believed that eventually psychological phenomena would be traced back to neurophysiological eventsy Psychosomatic theories were a failure y The closely linked fields of health psychology and behavioral medicine are founded on the notion that the mind and the body are intimately connected in a bidirectional or even transactional mannero Bidirectional refers to a reciprocal relationship between physical and psychological health o Transactional refers to a continuous process of change among multiple variables Eg a person with emphysema continues to smoke to feel better but in the long run it worsens the persons emphysemic conditionIn keeping with atransactional perspective we use the term personality processes to acknowledge that the psychological factors studied in connection with health and aging includeTraitsAffective statesPsychological symptomsBeliefs and attitudes y In the relationship between personality processes and diseases such as CHD As risk factors the three primary negative emotions that have been linked to the development of diseased and its progression are
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