Textbook Notes (362,984)
Canada (158,126)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

A&G: Chapter 10 Stress, Coping, and Health Stress is a major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the aging process. Through the Neuroendocrine system, psychosocial stress can have adverse effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. Older adults may be vulnerable to the effects of physical stress Evidence that stress can toughen or strengthen us through heat shock proteins and social ties Genetic based mechanisms that protect against stress at the cellular level: DNA repair mechanisms, antioxidants, and heat shock proteins Stress Three different major ways to describe stress: 1) Stress as a Physiological State Classic Theories Cannon (1915) was the first physiologist to systematically describe the physiological effects of stress. He noted that cats exposed to barking dogs would respond with a rush of epinephrine or adrenaline into their systems. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS)- reacts to stress in two ways Originates in the spinal column (preganglionic nerves) and radiate to the target organs (postganglionic nerves) Preganglionic are cholinergic they secrete the neurontransmitter aceteylcholine Postganglionic nerves use norepinephrine Sympathetic nerves works on the: the heart, bronchi, gut, kidney, blood vessels, sweat glands and piloerector muscles In sympatheticadrenal medulla (SAM)- nerves radiate to adrenal medulla- which secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noadrenaline) into blood [stimulates organ muscles and blood vessels] Epinephrine- more powerful cardiac stimulant, increases metabolic rate Norepinephrine- stimulates the peripheral vascular system & raises blood pressure Sympathetic activation- increases heart rate, respiration rates, dilate pupils, diverts blood flow & increases blood pressure [readies organism for physical activity] Parasympathetic NS- brings the body back to homeostasis after stress or strenuous physical activity Prolonged increases in blood pressure and blood clotting would eventually result in hypertension and cardiovascular disease Hypothalamus secrets corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CHA) which activates the posterior lobe of the pituitary Pituitary releases adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) into blood stream ACTH stimulates the cortex of adrenal glands to release corticosteroids [glucocorticoids] Cannon argued that this fightflight reaction, although adaptive in the short run, could have very harmful effects if prolonged. 1 www.notesolution.com
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