HLTB02 Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter 1: Child Development:  Theories and Themes  1.1: THEORIES OF C HILD D EVELOPMENT • Locke believed in tabula rasa o Experience moulds the person • Rousseau believed newborns were endowed with an innate sense of justice and morality that unfolds naturally as children grow Canada’s Unique Contribution • Baldwin believed that theory must guide experimentation o Children’s development occurred in stages, later advanced by Piaget o Development proceeded from simple behavioural movements gradually coordinated into more complex behaviours and leading to adult forms of abstract thought The Biological Perspective • Hall and Darwin studied evolutionary biology • Maturational theory proposed by Gesell o Child development reflects a specific and pre-arranged scheme or plan within the body o Encouraged parents to let their children develop naturally • Ethological theory o View development from evolutionary perspective o Many behaviours are adaptive – have survival value  Eg. crying o Also believe that experience is important o Critical period is the time in development when a specific type of learning can take place  Before or after the critical period, same learning is difficult or impossible o Imprinting was a concept by Lorenz on chicks  In humans its called attachment  For imprinting to occur, chick had to see the moving object within a day of hatching The Psychodynamic Perspective • Freud specialized in diseases of the nervous system • Psychoanalysis is a psychological theory proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve unconscious conflicts that arise during development o Also a method of psychological treatment o Psychodynamic theories  Criticized for its limited base of initial research and its controversial claims about women • Freud’s ideas about personality and psychosexual development influenced child- development research Theory of Personality • Id o Present at birth • Ego o Emerge during first year of life • Superego o Emerge during preschool years Theory of Psychosexual Development • Libido o Believe that humans are motivated from birth to experience physical pleasure o As children grow, libido shifts to different erogenous zones o Development proceeds best when children’s needs at each stage are met but not exceeded  If needs not met, may lead to smoking  If overindulged at one stage, may see little need to progress to more advanced stages  Parents may end up satisfying children’s needs by spoiling them Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Development consisted of a sequence of 8 stages, each defined by a unique crisis or social challenge • Same as Freud, he argued that earlier stages of development provide the foundation for later stages The Learning Perspective • Endorse Locke’s view of blank slate • Watson’s work based on Pavlov’s demonstration of classical conditioning o Watson did experiments with LittleAlbert Early Learning Theories • Skinner studied operant conditioning o Consequences of a behaviour affect whether that behaviour is repeated in the future  Positive and negative reinforcement o Punishment suppresses behaviour either by causing something unpleasant to occur or by withholding a pleasant event o Imitation or observational (vicarious) learning Social Cognitive Theory • Children more likely to imitate a person whom they admire in some way o Also more likely to imitate when they see a behaviour rewarded rather than punished • Bandura based this on reward, punishment, and imitation o Children are actively trying to understand their world and people are important sources of information about the world o Experience gives children a sense of self-efficacy  Determines when children will imitate others The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective • Focuses on how children think and how their thinking changes over time • Piaget believed that youngsters are naturally motivated to make sense of the physical and social world o When the world works the way the child expects, the child’s belief in that theory grow stronger o When it doesn’t, child must revise theory, just as a scientist would o Radical revisions occur when children realize that a theory cannot be revised  Occur once at age 2, age 7, and just before adolescence o Four stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational thought, formal operational thought • Case had theoretical hybrid blending of Piagetian theory with information- processing theory and called it neo-Piagetian theory The Contextual Perspective • Parents and teachers are only one part of a much larger system within each element of the system influencing all other elements o Includes pa
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