HLTB02 Chapter 5.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter 5: Physical Development in  Infants and Toddlers  5.1: HEALTHY GROWTH Features of Human Growth • Most obvious way to measure physical growth is in terms of height and weight o Adapted use of the growth charts developed by WHO o Rule of thumb: boys achieve half their adult height by 2 years and girls by 18 months • Human growth follows the Cephalocaudal principle o Toddlers have a disproportionately large head and trunk  Top-heavy compared to older child  As growth of hips, legs, feet catches up, children’s bodies take on more adult proportions • Virtually all the body’s muscle fibres are present at birth o During childhood, muscles become longer and thicker as individual fibres fuse together  Process accelerates during adolescence, particularly for boys • Layer of fat first appears under the skin near the end of the fetal period o Fat continues to accumulate rapidly during the first year after birth o Preschool years, children become leaner o Elementary school years they begin to acquire more fat again  Happens gradually at first, then more rapidly during adolescence • More pronounced in girls o Up to age of 2, children at high-risk for adult obesity  Based on family factors, tend not to differ in terms of body mass from children at low risk for adult obesity  Increase in weight become more noticeable by age 4, with fat masses being higher by age 6 in children at high risk for adult obesity • Bone forms during prenatal development o Starts as cartilage o During embryonic period, middle of the tissue turns to bone o Shortly before birth, ends of cartilage structures (epiphyses) turn to bone o Working from the middle, cartilage turns to bone until finally the enlarging middle section reaches the epiphyses, ending skeletal growth Variations on theAverage Profile • Secular growth trends – changes in physical development from one generation to the next o Quite large in industrialized nations • What is normal can vary greatly o Applies to all aspects of development Mechanisms of Physical Growth Heredity • Plays a role in determining both person’s adult height, and rate at which the person achieves adult height Hormones • Chemicals that are released by glands and travel in the bloodstream to act on other areas of the body • Pituitary secretes growth hormone (GH) o Happens during sleep and sometimes after exercise o GH travels to liver and triggers release of somatomedin which causes muscles and bones to grow o Inadequate amounts of GH could lead to dwarfism  Most adults have normal proportions, but quite short  Treated with injections of GH • Thyroxine essential for proper development of nerve cells • Essential for most cells in the body to function properly o Deficiency can make pituitary gland ineffective o Abundance can cause other kinds of pathologies that have been linked to anxiety-related problems Nutrition • 5.5 kg 3-month-old should eat about 110 calories/kg of body weight or 600 calories • Introduction of only one food at a time is a good rule o Allergies that might develop can be linked to a particular food • Breastfed and bottle-fed babies are similar in physical and psychological development • WHO recommends breast-feeding for infants and toddlers in developing nations o Formula may be contaminated or not enough is used (too poor, trying to conserve) • At 2 years, growth slows, so children need less to eat o Time where they become picky eaters o Eating only familiar foods protects them from potential harm  Adaptive behaviour Challenges to Healthy Growth Malnutrition • Worldwide, about 1 in 3 children under age 5 is malnourished • 1.6% of families in industrialized countries reported experiencing hunger • 37% experience hunger at least every few months • Especially damaging during infancy because growth is so rapid during this time o Damages the brain • Malnourished children are often listless and inactive, allowing them to conserve energy • When children are unresponsive and lethargic o Parents might provide fewer experiences to foster the children’s development o Children lack both the physical nutrients and cognitive stimulation • To break this cycle, children need more than a better diet o Parents must be taught how to foster development o Nutrition education for children and families  Won’t necessarily improve attitudes or behaviours o Parents’nurturing engagement with the child also remains one of the most crucial aspects for promoting early brain development Diseases • Estimated 11 million children under age 5 die every year • Acute respiratory infections (including pneumonia and influenza) and diarrheal diseases, accounting for 2 million child deaths annually • Majority can be prevented with proven, cost-effective treatments • Asthma increased 9% in Canada, with rate of 15.5% inAtlantic Canada o Differences in health-care delivery, genetic predisposition, and levels of exposure to environment pollutants such as automotive exhaust • West Nile virus known in NorthAmerica over past few years o Affect middle-aged and elderly people more severely than children • Some disorders can be prevented or their impact contained through immunization or by educating parents o No definitive evidence exists that vaccination causes autism o Vaccination rates have skyrocketed in many developing countries • WHO joined with UNICEF to created Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), program is to combat the five conditions that account for the vast majority of childhood deaths: pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, malaria, and malnutrition o Training health-care professionals to become more skilled in dealing with childhood illnesses o Improving health-care systems so that they are better able to respond to childhood illness o Changing family and community practices to make them more conductive to healthy growth Accidents • After first year of life, children are more likely to die from accidents than from any other single cause o Motor vehicle accidents are the most common cause o Many could be prevented if restrained properly in an approved infant car seat  Booster
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