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HLTC23H3 (27)
Chapter 10

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTC23H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 10: Social and Emotional Development in Preschool Children  10.4: MORAL  DEVELOPMENT : LEARNING  TO C ONTROL  ONE S  BEHAVIOR    • Self­control is the ability to rise above immediate pressures and not give in to  impulse  o One of the first steps toward moral behavior  Beginnings of Self­Control • Begins in the pre­school years  o In infancy, babies initially learn about self­soothing through parental  regulatory activities, such as distracting the infant from an upsetting  stimulus  o Phase 1: at approximately first birthday, infants become aware that people  impose demands on them and that they must react accordingly. They learn  that they are not entirely free to behave as they wish; instead, others set  limits on what they can do. These limits reflect both concerns for their  safety as well as early socialization efforts. o Phase 2: at about 2 years, toddlers have internalized some of the controls  imposed by others, and they are capable of some self­control in parents’  absence.  o Phase 3: at about 3 years, children become capable of greater self­ regulation, which “involves flexible and adaptive control processes that  can meet quickly changing situational demands.” Children can devise  ways to regulate their own behavior.  • By age 3, children are capable of some self­regulation o Can formulate simple plans for dealing with the demands of different  situations  • Children that had good self­control on one task tended to have good control on  other tasks, too  • Individuals differ in their ability to resist temptation o Remarkably stable over time  Parental Influences  • Children can show self­restraint or be incredibly impulsive, depending on how  they observe others behave  • Self­control is lower in children whose parents are very strict with them  Temperamental Influences on Self­Control  • Highly emotional toddlers and preschoolers are less able to control themselves  • Anxious and fearful children become nervous at the prospect of potential  wrongdoing  o Simple parental reminder usually guarantees compliance because they are  so anxious 
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