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HLTD04H3 (42)

Textbook ch9

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Health Studies
Toba Bryant

Chapter 9 Ethnography and Participant Observation Participant observation and ethnography are synonymousIn both the researcher is immersed in a group of people for an extended period of time observing behavior listening to what is said in conversations and asking questions Four types of ethnographyOpenpublic setting Closed setting private or restricted Overt Role Type 1 Type 2 Covert Role Type 3 Type 4 Access 143Most important and most difficult steps in ethnography is gaining access to the social settings one wants to research Closed settings generally include organization of various kinds such as firms schools cults and social movements Open does not necessarily mean east access to people and can include libraries parks and sidewalksOvert vs covert 143 Easy way to gain access is through a covert role not disclosing that you are a researcherRetrospective ethnography involves using observations that were gathered before one decided to do a studyPreferred choice is an overt role because practical and ethical considerations Stances on ethicsEthical issue 91 Moral universalism is a view that ethical precepts should NEVER be broken It is rarely adhered to and is difficult if not impossible to conduct research without committing at least a minor ethical violationSituation ethics argues for deception in research to be considered on a casebycase basis a principled relativism based on the end justified the means Without some breaking of ethical rules one could never gain knowledge about terrorists cults drug gangs whitecollar criminals which often require some kind of disguised observation Ethical transgression is pervasive therefore t
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