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Chapter 2

IDSA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Four Asian Tigers, Anne Osborn Krueger, Washington Consensus

International Development Studies
Course Code
Leslie Chan

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The Ideology of Development
By: Easterly
-In fact, they often conspicuously violated whatever it was the experts said at the
-The East Asian tigers, for instance, chose outward orientation on their own in the
1960s, when the experts’ conventional wisdom was industrialization for the home
-The rapid growth of China over the past quarter century came when it was hardly
a poster child for either the 1980s Washington Consensus or the 1990s
institutionalism of democracy and cracking down on corruption
-What explains the appeal of development ideology despite its dismal track record?
— Ideologies usually arise in response to tragic situations in which people are
hungry for clear and comprehensive solutions
-The inequality of the Industrial Revolution bred Marxism, and the backwardness of
Russia its Leninist offshoot
-Germany’s defeat and demoralization in World War I birthed Nazism
-Economic hardship accompanied by threats to identity led to both Christian and Islamic
-Similarly, development ideology appeals to those who want a definitive, complete answer
to the tragedy of world poverty and inequality
-It answers the question, "What is to be done?" to borrow the title of Lenin’s 1902 tract
-It stresses collective social outcomes that must be remedied by collective, top-down action
by the intelligentsia, the revolutionary vanguard, the development expert
- As Sachs explains, "I have … gradually come to understand through my scientific research
and on the ground advisory work the awesome power in our generation’s hands to end
the massive suffering of the extreme poor … although introductory economics textbooks
preach individualism and decentralized markets, our safety and prosperity depend at least
as much on collective decisions.
Freeing the Poor
-Few realize that Americans in 1776 had the same income level as the average African
-Yet, like all the present-day developed nations, the United States was lucky enough to
escape poverty before there were Developmentalists
-In the words of former IMF First Deputy Managing Director Anne Krueger, development in
the rich nations "just happened."
-George Washington did not have to deal with aid partners, getting structurally adjusted by
them, or preparing poverty-reduction strategy papers for them
-Abraham Lincoln did not celebrate a government of the donors, by the donors, and for the
-Today’s developed nations were free to experiment with their own pragmatic paths toward
more government accountability and freer markets
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