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Chapter 8

IDSA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Peacebuilding, Chauvinism

International Development Studies
Course Code
Leslie Chan

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Conflict, Peacebuilding, and Education:
Rethinking Pedagogies in Divided Societies Latin America, and around the World
Kathy Bickmore
-conflict—disputes, distrust incompatible interests, not necessarily violence—is
inevitable in life, despite what we see in news and history books, it is often addressed
-“Actually, peace is not news because most people live in peace with their neighbors
most of the time, and most countries live in peace with neighboring countries most of
the time”
- Education alone cannot resolve (and may even legitimize) systemic issues that
exacerbate destructive conflict—such as: resource scarcity, concentration of power,
social exclusion, or narratives of enmity and aggressive nationalism
-Education may build:
1. capacity and social relationships for democratic
2. inclusive and just conflict management (transformative peacebuilding), by influencing
individual and collective understandings, competencies, values, norms, opportunities,
agency, and status equity
-Comparative international education as a field has always carried a concern for
peace, including international understanding and amelioration of harms such as
injustice and poverty
-This chapter reviews international and comparative scholarship on education for
democratic peacebuilding, primarily in societies suffering current or recent escalated
destructive conflict (repression, gang violence, war or division).
Education and Violent Conflict
-Around the world, formal (school) and non-formal (outside school) education may
exacerbate violence, at least as often as it teaches or practices non-violent,
democratic responses to conflict
-political scientist Marc Ross (1993) found by analyzing ethnographies of high-
conflict and low-conflict societies, conflicts are rooted in both:
1. tangible, socially-structured interests (inequities, competing needs for
2. intangible psycho-cultural narratives (beliefs, values, fears—what matters to
people and why)
-This applies to education
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