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Chapter 8

IDSA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Peace Education, Peacebuilding, Structural Violence

International Development Studies
Course Code
Leslie Chan

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Conflict, Peacebuilding, and Education:
Rethinking Pedagogies in Divided Societies Latin America, and around the World
Kathy Bickmore
- Rather than find solutions to [violence] problems, the state gains huge political capital
from its ongoing confrontations at the same time as it allies with pathological and
corrupt violent actors outside the state in order to gain temporary victories
- Such securitization, in the form of punitive discipline regimes (repressive attempts at
peacekeeping control), also is increasingly prevalent inside some school systems, in
particular Mexico’s
-The work of Brazilian socialist education scholar Paulo Freire has profoundly
influenced peace and conflict educators’ pedagogies and efforts to address structural
- Campaigns to empower poor people, inspired by Freire, have been mounted in Cuba
and Nicaragua in Latin America, and Guinea-Bissau in Africa. These initiatives have
engaged learners in “conscientization” dialogue, expressing the realities of their own
oppression so that they could rise up and transform their situations
- These experiences show that it is challenging, but not impossible, to facilitate
dialogue-based learning to build upon the local cultural knowledge of participants.
Critical and liberating dialogue, which presupposes action, must be carried on with the
oppressed at whatever the stage of their struggle for liberation. The content of that
dialogue can and should vary in accordance with historical conditions and the level at which
the oppressed perceive reality.Paulo Freire !
- Like Freirean praxis, peace and conflict education explicitly intends to change the
world, to make it more humane and less violent
- This value-laden goal makes its implementation dependent on the social and political
conditions, cultures, and levels of consensus in each environment
- Yet many prominent international peace education initiatives, including those
advocating a Culture of Peace, the subsequent initiative for Rapprochement of
Cultures, and the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21
Century (Hague-
Appeal, 1999), emphasize persuading individuals to develop interpersonal
communication and problem solving skills and universal values such as non-
violence, tolerance, justice, solidarity, human rights, and environmental sustainability
A culture of peace will be achieved when citizens of the world understand global problems,
have the skills to resolve conflicts and struggle for justice non-violently, live by international
standards of human rights and equity, appreciate cultural diversity, and respect the Earth
and each other. Such learning can be only be achieved by systematic education for peace.
Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century (1999)
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