IDSB04H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Nipple, Medical Statistics, Public Health Surveillance

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Week 1 - The Historical Origins of Modern International (and Global) Health
Antecedents of Modern International Health
Key Questions
- What aspects of the Black Death made it an international as opposed to a local issue?
o It was a worldwide epidemic
- What were the health dimensions of colonial invasion and occupation?
- How did the Atlantic slave trade fit into colonialism and what were its health implications?
o The slaves that were taken by colonialists were taken out of their homes and forced to work
o These slaves were exposed to new diseases
Plague and the Beginnings of Health Regulations
- Black Death occurred from the 14th c. to the 17th c.
- This plague originated in wild rodents what created the sickness that travelled over seas were humans, expansive farming
and new trading methods
- There were a huge set of health problems but no central institution
o People blamed cosmological causes for health problems
The role of religion people sa sikess as Gods puishet fo olletie o pesoal si
o Instead of finding ways to treat people, those who were sick were isolated for 40 days and after that period, they
were thought to be unable to spread the disease (aka quarantine)
This was an early attempt at international disease control
Quarantine was a 40-day detention period adopted by Venice because they though that this period of
time would remove any disease that was present
- These plagues that oued i Euope didt thik lealiess ad saitatio ea athig with increasing legislations
and the awareness of the public through the printing press, hygienic standards were created i.e. control over street
cleaning, the disposal of dead bodies and carcasses, water maintenance
The Rise of European Imperialism
- 1492 onwards
- The disoe of the Ne Wold  these expeditions were to claim land and mineral wealth for royal patrons
- Islamic scholars during the Middle Ages were the people that held all the classical and medical knowledge
o A previously predominant Catholic Europe was not in contact with Muslims and Jews which opened their eyes to
new ways of trading
- Spanish and Portuguese monarchs controlled the divisions of land by allowing for land grabbing in the Americas and Asia
o Europe was a main player in this era of imperialism where European powers aggressively claim territories around
the world
o This era spanned from the late 15th to the mid-20th centuries there are still a few colonies present today
Colonialism, Health, and Medicine
- Imperialism meant that diseases were able to spread across borders
o Europeans carried illness such as influenza, typhus, smallpox, measles, cholera, syphilis
- The New World was a significant time in history because of the number of death people were dying because of infectious
diseases and violent outbreaks and famine
- The mortality of Europeans increased because they demanded New World resources even though it brought them harmful
consequences which include: indentured servitude (involved dangerous work in mines, construction, and plantations,
mosquito breeding sites etc.)
o These changes contributed to the death of about one-half of indigenous inhabitants
- Examples of the effects of colonialism
o Coloial Meios liig oditios oseed ith the iasio of the “paiads eause the Aztes ee the oes
that kept the streets of their capital Tenochtitlan clean where their wastewater was carefully separated from their
clean water source, and their solid waste was used to fertilize crops
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When their capital was destroyed and rebuilt under the rule of the Spanish, the source of clean water that
they used became a landfill and sewage disposal
o Colombian exchange occurred between Europe and the lands that it invaded which resulted in the circulation of
diseases such as microbes, flora, fauna
This was because of the food that was distributed such as coffee, corn, potatoes, which added new foods
to the diet of the people throughout the world, which improved the nutrition of people
The Atlantic Slave Trade
- 1600-1900
- West Africans were captured and deported to America, South America, Europe where they lived on slave ships and suffered
from health problems such as malnutrition
- As long as profits were being made, the labor force continued to reproduce
o This way of thinking also affected African societies because it created violence and social displacement
- The antecednets of international health explained the diseases that were in one country were exposed to new
populations of people that have never been exposed before
o Medicine was seen as a way to save the souls of those who were ill
o Development today had a lot to do with the medicalizing during the Colonial period
Health, The Tropics, and the Imperial System
Key Questions
- Why and how did the area of tropical medicine emerge?
o When colonialists took over the south
- What were its principal tenants?
o Asia and African were directly controlled where medical responses were the strongest
The Menace of Malaria and the Rise of Tropical Medicine
- Malaria spread over lands during the colonial era due to new towns being built, forests being cleared, inadequate drainage
and sewage disposal, new canals, train routes
- Environmental and sanitary measures were implemented which reduced the number of malaria outbreaks
o Malaria research was crucial in understanding the sickness
o Patrick Manson was the physician that hypothesized a linked between the parasite and mosquitos
The Trials of Trypanosomiasis
- This is a sleeping sickness that is connected to imperialism
o African societies have known about this sickness for a long time because it attacked cattle; local populations were
able to control the disease through herding practices
o The sickness was transmitted to humans by a tsetse fly vector parasite that attacks the immune system, and organ
systems, and then eventually the central nervous system which would kill those infected
- The British Empire, on the other hand, focused on maintaining law and orde , podutiit, ad tade hih didt help i
controlling disease outbreaks
o They were more concerned with civilizing discourse which included racist control policies such as segregating
infected Africans into concentration camps, administering painful and marginally effective medications, conducting
experiments on captives
Copaatie Coloial Appoahes i the Topial Disease Ea
- The medico-imperial approaches emerged
o These missions occurred where colonialists imposed values and cultural institutions that emphasized economic
development and hygiene
o These places were plagued by trypanomiasis therefore colonial doctors would use paternalistic public health
This included model villages, health screenings, maternity camps, education, sport, agricultural scheme
The doctors tried to modernize the rural and sparsely populated era
o Worldwide exploration, colonization and commerce have created major demographic changes which have allowed
for voluntary migration of populations to occur
The cultural and social institutions of colonial regimes were imposed on societies which affected
languages, legal systems, medicine, concepts of causality and treatment
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