IDSB04H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Agribusiness, Blood Sugar Regulation, Lifesaving

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IDSB04 Week 5 Reading
Chapter 6 Epidemiologic Profiles of Global Health and Disease
Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality Across Societies and the Life Cycle
Key Questions:
- How do patterns of mortality compare across countries?
- What are the structural factors shaping these patterns?
- How do the underlying causes of death change across the life course?
- Three countries chosen with different levels of income and redistribution to show the range in causes of death
1. High-income/redistributive: Italy
2. Middle-income/partially redistributive: Indonesia
3. Low-income/marginally redistributive: Kenya
- Table 6-1 Public Health epidemiologic terms
o Endemic disease = constant occurrence and/or high prevalence of a disease in a geographic/population group
o Epidemic = the occurrence in a community/region of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior and is
clearly occurring more than normal
o Incidence = the number of new health-related events in a defined population with in a specific period of time (rate)
o Pandemic = an epidemic that occurs worldwide/over a very wide area, often crosses international boundaries
o Prevalence = the total number of individuals who have a health condition at a particular time (or period) divided by
the population that is at risk of having the disease at this point in time (ratio)
- Figure 6-1 Leading causes of death in the world (2013)
o The top three causes of death are chronic non communicable conditions such as coronary heart disease, cancer
and cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
o Italy (an HIC) has high levels of income inequality and child poverty compared to other European countries they
have high life expectancy, low child mortality rates, and low maternal mortality ratios (Figure 6-2)
o Indonesia is an MIC where their life expectancy is considerably lower than Europe, has a high infant and child
mortality rates, maternal mortality ratio is more than 30 times than in Italy (Figure 6-3)
o Kenya is an LIC where life expectancy is lower than Indonesia, the infant mortality rate is high, and maternal
mortality is extremely high (Figure 6-4)
The Present Plagues: Noncommunicable Disease
- NCDs are present in all countries and their numbers of growing
- NCDs cause over two thirds of all deaths in order to help this growing fact, political declarations are being used to reduce
isk fatos, poote eseah o peetio ad otol
- Box 6-1 Approaches to Prevention and Control of NCDs
o Public health campaigns focus on prevention strategies of improving diet, promoting physical activity and creating
a healthy environment to aid in reducing NCDs
o Biomedical approaches include interactions and medications that target specific disease
- These diseases ae ofte lik to a poo lifestle hoies – NCDs that are found in all countries are linked to societal and
global patterns of work, stress, trade, production, aging, marketing, and consumption
- Increasing rates of NCDs can be traced to a dietary change from whole grains, pulses, and fresh fruits and vegetables to
more processed diets that ae high in sugar, transfats, and animal-source food
o This change has come with a shift to a neoliberal capitalist globalization which has changed local production,
access, cost and availability of nutritious food in LMICs
Health of Infants and Children
- The dramatic reduction of overall infant and child mortality is a great achieve in international health
o It has been accomplished through improved sanitation, maternal and infant nutrition, vaccination, and primary
health care interventions
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- IMR is often cited as oe of the ost sesitie idiatos of a geeal leel of deelopet ad the state of health of a
population
o High IMRs show the inadequacies in socioeconomic and sanitary conditions
o Often times, the leading causes of infant and child mortality are preventable through structural and redistributive
policy approaches
- The distribution of childhood mortality is not equal because advances have been made in MICs, but not so much in LIC
where childhood mortality improvement are much slower (ex. Sub-Saharan Africa)
o Potential causes of infant mortality begin in utero the nutrition of mother can lead to low birth weight, infections
- Malnutrition is a key determinant and is the cause of half of child deaths
o Chronic malnutrition in early childhood has serious consequences such as vitamin-A deficiencies that are linked to
blindness, iodine deficiency linked to growth failure and intellectual disability
- Interventions that exist for both mothers and children could prevent most neonatal deaths these interventions often
do’t oside udelig fatos
- Toddlers are subject to many different respiratory illnesses, immature immunological systems, and environmental dangers
and in order for their life chances to improve, they must have potable water, proper cooking facilities, oral rehydration
therapy and malaria prevention and treatment
The Health of Children Five and Older and Youth Adults: Unique Realities and Issues
- Childhood and youth may be the healthiest time of life, but 5-25 year olds fact the highest rates of death because of road
injuries, poisonings, doig’s and other accidental causes of death including suicide and homicide
- Societal factors during childhood are vital in shaping health but for many children, early education is not the primary
concern but rather work where children often work in hazardous conditions, human trafficking which contribute to major
health problems
- The lack of education among women has also affected their knowledge on safe sex and sexually transmitted diseases, which
are the second leading cause of death
Health through the Life course
- The health of adults is different from children and the elderly because they typically have more immunity and can recover
faster from acute communicable illnesses
- Adults are a huge part of the economy of all countries, but the health of the working class is not a huge concern for policy
markers and planners
Mental Health
- Many of the people with mental and psychosocial disabilities are living in poverty, poor physical health and are subject to
human rights violations
- Mental health problems (especially suicide) accompany other illness, particularly NCDs
- Mental health disorders are often connected with substance abuse, where some people turn to addictive drugs such as
alcohol, cocaine, painkillers or heroin to relieve their symptoms
o There are few countries that provide substance abuse counseling and treatment along with mental health services
- There are many mental illnesses that are disproportionately suffered by the poor and oppressed due to precarious living
and working conditions, social isolation, exploitation and mistreatment and the lack of health care and social support
particularly with schizophrenia
- The biomedical approach of global mental health is highly criticized because the impose Western models of psychiatry in
LMICs and ignore local and Indigenous understandings of mental health, emotional responses and ways of coping
o This shows how strong the influence of the pharmaceutical industry is
Disability
- Disability includes both various factors such as medical, physical economic, and environmental these are discriminated by
society, excluded from work, education and other activities
- Poverty both causes and results from disability where the majority of people with disabilities live in LICs
o These people are often faced with exclusion in terms of accessing education, health, and social services
- Those living with disailities ofte euie speialized eha pogas ad theap, ut a outies do’t poide suh
care only a small percentage of people with disabilities in LMICs have access to care
o The devices that are required are very expensive and therefore are not affordable since many of those who are
disabled are also unemployed
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
- STIs or STDs include viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections that are transmitted through sex some of the most common
ones are chlamydia, syphilis, herpes, HPV, HIV
- STIs are preventable causes of infertility among women mothers can transmit STIs to their children
- STIs are highly preventable through barrier methods of protection, such as condoms during sexual activity but these
methods are not always available or appropriate
- Factors such as stigma, cost and availability of medical and laboratory services often stop people from seeking diagnosis or
treatment
People Who Inject Drugs
- Substance use and abuse can have long-term health effects such as reduced memory, increased injury rates
- These people also fact unemployment and are associated impoverishment and homelessness, violence, mental illness and
family estrangement
- There are many viral infections that are spread through inject drug use and the use of non-sterile medical injections
o Treatments for these infections are expensive not many people can afford it
- Safe injection sites where people can get clean needles and disposal facilities, opiate substitution therapy, and nursing
addition counseling staff are available in various cities such as Vancouver and Berlin
o These practices are harm reduction strategies that have reduced the spread of disease and other health effects
Oral Health
- Oal diseases ae a huge puli health oe i ost of the old’s LMICs
- Dental caries affect 5 billion people and 90% of these caries are left untreated
- Oral problems are among the poor populations
o The increased consumption of soft drinks and pre-packaged foods that contain refined sugars, insufficient
exposure to fluorides, and the expense of tooth brushes all contribute to poor oral health
- This is not just a problem in LMICs, but HICs as well were poorer groups of people often suffer oral pain, tooth decay and
missing teeth because dental care is not included in provincial health plans
Gender, Sex and Health
Woe’s Health
- This includes, but is not limited to, reproductive and sexual health: even health concerns linked to biology and reproductive
roles are shaped by gender concerns
- Women generally have a longer life expectancy but tend to experience more illness and disability than men
- In many societies, women have limited economic and social power, and attain lower levels of education than men
o This puts women at a disadvantage and result in gender-specific health problems
o Violatios of gils’ ad oe’s health ad hua ights ilude eal ad oeed oset of seual ativity, early
marriage, gender-based violence, dowry deaths, high rates of STIs, sexual trafficking
- Occupational health problems are experience more by women they are often exposed to higher levels of indoor air
pollution
Woe’s Repodutio Health
- Reproductive-age women in LMICs of illnesses and deaths are pregnancy related due to maternal causes, obstructed labor,
complications from abortion
- Maternal mortality shows the largest discrepancy between HICs and LICs due to the lack of proper infrastructure for
peatal ae, poo esoue alloatio, lo pioit o oe’s health
- Three types of care essential for pregnant women:
o Antenatal care
o Perinatal care = care before delivery
o Postpartum care = care after delivery
- Abortions that are poorly performed are an important cause of maternal mortality
o Often times, women look to get abortions that are poorly performed because abortion are illegal in certain
countries
Me’s Health
- Men experience higher rates of mortality and have higher rates of CVD, HIV and physical injury
- Me’s oles i failies ae ostl eadies hih a lead the to pefo dageous o stessful jos
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Document Summary

Chapter 6 epidemiologic profiles of global health and disease. Leading causes of morbidity and mortality across societies and the life cycle. Three countries chosen with different levels of income and redistribution to show the range in causes of death: high-income/redistributive: italy, middle-income/partially redistributive: indonesia, low-income/marginally redistributive: kenya. Figure 6-1 leading causes of death in the world (2013: the top three causes of death are chronic non communicable conditions such as coronary heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular disease (stroke) Italy (an hic) has high levels of income inequality and child poverty compared to other european countries they have high life expectancy, low child mortality rates, and low maternal mortality ratios (figure 6-2) Ncds are present in all countries and their numbers of growing. Ncds cause over two thirds of all deaths in order to help this growing fact, political declarations are being used to reduce (cid:862)(cid:396)isk fa(cid:272)to(cid:396)s(cid:863), p(cid:396)o(cid:373)ote (cid:396)esea(cid:396)(cid:272)h o(cid:374) p(cid:396)e(cid:448)e(cid:374)tio(cid:374) a(cid:374)d (cid:272)o(cid:374)t(cid:396)ol.

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