IDSB04H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Global Health, Health Equity, Infant Mortality


Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn
Chapter
13

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IDSB04 Chapter 13
Chapter 13 Building Healthy Societies: From Ideas to Action
Key Questions:
- What makes for a healthy society?
- How do global health policies and activities aid or impede the building of healthy societies?
- Global health initiatives and PPPs prioritize technical magic bullets at the expense of integrated and comprehensive
approaches to well-being
What Constitutes Success in Global Health?
- Global health progress is usually measured in terms of disease control and eradication achievements, number of cases
prevented, infant mortality declines and improvements in life expectancy
o These are often the goals of global and transnational actors
- Donor aid
o Ex. The BMGF - they make an end date where the lives of the people living in poor countries will improve by that
time
They give people vaccinations, and they believe that through simple actions like hand-washing as well as
innovations like new toilets that are designed for poor places
- Development specialists cite the concept of global public goods as a rationale for addressing global health and development
needs
o They suggest that self-interest parties are more likely to participate if there is something in it for them
o The basic idea is that everyone will enjoy advantages from spending and attention to public goods and no one can
be excluded
This ie doest oside the ole of poe ad resource inequalities that determine the distribution of
health and well-being
- Global health can be gauged where it is more narrowly focused
o Ex. Canadas Operation Eyesight
There are different levels of success through training for cataract surgeries for local professionals;
campaigning to the WHO
A critical political economy approach to global health argues for going beyond the charity model of
providing cataract surgery to pursue a deeper understanding of, and activism around, the larger
determinants of health inequity and health needs
The goal should be to allow people to thrive, equitably and over the long term
- Therefore, success in global health a est e easued i tes of the fields ailit to itegate politial eoo, hua
ights, ad olletie health appoahes ith puli healths tehial tools to eefit health ad health euit
Vertical Health Programs and Global Health Interventions: Success and Limitations
Key Questions:
- What are the characteristics of targeted interventions?
- How might they be enhanced?
- A century ago, the idea of tackling diseases was eradiation and technology-based campaigns, a vertical (top-down) structure
- Technical approaches to global health was not forgotten but was continuously used which faced limitations
Which Interventions Work, According to Whom, and What Is the Evidence?
- Millios “aed is a thik tak that seeks to idetif poe suesses i gloal health they came up with key ingredients of
success:
o Predictable and adequate funding
o Political leadership
o Affordable technologies
o Technical consensus about the appropriate biomedical or public health approach
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o Use and sharing of quality information
o Effective health delivery and management
o In certain cases, community participation and NGO involvement
- What Millions Saved has missed is the context of policies that they have implemented what has enable them, what
sustained them, and what other measures accompanied them
Evaluating the Evidence
- Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) tries to replicate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and calls them randomized
evaluation of poverty reduction interventions, in order to assess their effectiveness
o Their aim is to promote a project from pilot to wide application their work focuses on smaller problems that can
be fixed with better info and micro-level interventions
- Scaling up has the concern of absorptive capacity whether authorities in other regions and at higher levels are able to
effetiel use the adated pogas ad esoues aodig to the doos iteia ad ules
Coditioal Cash Tasfes ad othe Po-Poo Appoahes
- Pro-poor approaches
o This approach assumes that there is a definition of who is poor but often the poor and marginalized live where
people cannot see them
o Another concern would be the eligibility criteria of the transfers
o Main one are cash transfer programs, where government are give provisions of supplementary income to low-
income households through conditional cash transfers (CCTs)
They are financed by development banks and bilateral agencies to promote the UN Development
Programme
These require the recipient to fulfill certain obligations (ex. Ensuring that their child goes to school, up to
date vaccinations etc.) these are often gendered
To CCT pogas: Meios Oportunidades ad Bazils Bolsa Familia
- Oportunidades
o Eligibility was determined by household demographics and socioeconomic characteristics
o It consisted of a guaranteed package of primary care services and monthly cash transfers distributed to the female
heads of households with primary-school children
Conditions: pia ae isits to oito hilds goth, egula attedae to shool, peatal ad post-
partum visits for pregnant women
Benefits: cognitive improvements, fewer behavioral problems, height advantages, better diet for children
o The problem with this is that even though there are incentives for the people, there is no guarantee that the quality
of the services will be there
- Bolsa Familia
o All low-income families with children under 18 y/o are eligible; monthly cash transfers made to head female;
mandatory school attendance and health checkups
o The diffeee as Bazils itegated soial iestet appoah this allowed previously disenfranchised groups
to generate greater claims on the state this was meant to improve the economy
o You caot ipleet a oe-size-fits-all appoah the underlying causes of poverty are ignored
No new jobs
Health Societies: Case Studies
Key Questions:
- What enables some societies to be healthier than others?
- How do HIC and LMIC healthy society efforts compare and contrast?
- HICs that see to hae healthie societies dot poide uifo leels of potetio ad health; it aies o the stutues
of power and distribution of resources
- LMICs show that important of equal distribution, and not just levelling resources
HIC Welfare States
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