Chapter 1 summary

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Chapter 1
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO),Health is a state of complete physical,
mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
- This definition is much cites but rarely followed by international health actors, which typically
frame international health in terms of disease control
- Emerging consensus that addressing the social determinants of health is essential to ensuring
the highest attainable state of health and well-being
- These determinants include adequate housing, access to clean water, sanitation, nutrition,
education, broad social policies and protections, safe working conditions, and living wages
- Public health: is a concept that was coined in the 19th century to distinguish government efforts
for the preservation and protection of health from private actions
- U.S. public health leader C.-E.A. Winslow defined public health asthe science and art of
preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and efficiency through
organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community
infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of
medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the
development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a
standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health
- Population health: proposes that individual determinants of health do not act in isolation, but
rather interact in a complex fashion. For example, unemployment can lead to social isolation,
poverty, and homelessness, with profound effects on health
-Collective health: while the field of actors of collective health emphasize the political
dimensions and determinants of health, they challenge the exclusive role of, and reliance on, the
public sector, especially in contexts where governments are repressive, unrepresentative, or
unresponsive to the collective needs of the population
- Social medicine: developed in the 19th century as a form of integrating political action and
health efforts; this approach still resonates today among doctor-activists, a range of local health
departments, and certain national programs
- Early priority of international health organizations was disease surveillance, standardization,
and sanitary treaties calling for mandatory reciprocal notification of, and measures to combat,
particular diseases, including ship and passenger inspection and quarantine
- Global Health: a shared global susceptibility to, experience of, and responsibility for health.
Global health aims to address the health problems of both rich countries and poor countries.
- The idea of global health is inevitably tied to arguments around globalization – the growing
political, social, and cultural relations among individuals, communities, and countries that occur
as business interests, people, goods, ideas, and values travel around the globeand economic (or
neoliberal) globalization, the increasing connectedness of the world economy via the removal of
barriers to trade and capital flows
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