Though observed many years ago by Chinese and Ayurvedic healers, Edward
Jenner is accredited for finding the vaccination for smallpox. t Bourbon king of
Spain Charles IV in 1803 sponsored the Balmis-Salvany group to on an
expedition throughout their colonies to vaccinate people for smallpox (the first
mass health campaign)
o Death among the Mestizos and particulary indigenous and African descended
populations can be attributed to slave trade, work in mines, dispossession from land and
livelihood, crowded living conditions, ecological alterations making way for mosquito
breeding thus malaria, etc t though indigenous people suffered from diseases colonists
did as well: ex t in the Niger Expedition of 1841, permitted as an alternative to slave
trade to satisfy abolitionists all but 3 of the 35 Europeans died from malaria
¾ Slave trade
o Africans were used a slaves because (1) skin color was easier to spot if they escaped, (2)
they were believed to be physically adapted to work in tropical climates, (3) and they
were easy to capture due to separated social groups and limited weaponry in Africa.
o An estimated 11.4 Africans were captured between 1502 and 1870 and about 12-15% of
¾ Health, the tropics and the imperial system
cultural alienation and environment distinction between Europe and these locations.
explanations regarding susceptibility to disease, sustainability for work and
There was an err}v}µµu]}vZ}u]Á}ooÇ^}]o_t
to address the interaction of political and economical factors with ecological
o The demand for good from colonies increased the need for slave trade and later large-
scale hiring of contract workers which had health implications.
E.g. Britain sent agents to smuggle seedlings of the rubber tree ]vZíôñì[ when the rubber
industry became lucrative and grew them in the Malay Peninsula. But with a paucity of local
population and abolishment of slave trade thousands of Tamils were transferred resulting in severe
malaria, hookworm, etc in rubber estates.
o ^/u]o]uZvÁZÇv}(uo] infection. Rapid
Development, the building of cities and clearing of roads, and inadequate drainage and
It was Jesuits in S. America in the early 1600s that learned about local cure for
malaria using the Cinchona bark. It became highly demanded resulting in
depletion of the trees until the Dutch established plantations in Java which was
development of synthetic anti-malarials, sµZZo}}µ]v_~îô