of local priority-setting and advocate an integrated social, political, and technical
approach to health and healthcare in context to economic redistribution and meeting
•There is a panorama of organizations and actors involved in international health: those
with a direct mandate for health, those that provide public health and healthcare services
through public and private channels, and those that influence the determinants of health,
including international financial and trade agencies as well as social justice and health
The Evolution of International Health after WWII:
•Only until 50 years ago, the world and international health, was characterized by large
imperial blocks, rival powers in Europe, North America, and Australasia; colonized
regions; and regions that were economically dominated by imperial powers.
•Each imperial power had its own health office, charged with control of epidemics,
medical care organization, and infrastructure, often bolstered by “tropical health”
research institutes and the activities of religious missionaries. Bothe the world of political
order and the organization of international health would undergo profound changes in
the aftermath of WWII.
•The Role of the UN:
→In 1944, the U.S govt organized the UN Monetary and Financial Conference, and
invited 43 countries to attend.
→The main outcomes of the conference were the establishment of the International
Monetary Fund (IMF), to focus on macroeconomic policy and, eventually provide
loans and conditional on adoption of anti-inflationary and international payment
policies, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
more commonly known as the World Bank, to provide loans for particular
→An international health conference in 1946 produced the Constitution of the WHO
which was ratified by 26 nations on April 7th, 1948, which is now known as World
The World Health Organization:
→the mission of the WHO is as follows “ the attainment by all peoples of the
highest possible level of health”
→The work of the WHO is divided in to 2 major categories: central technical
services (which include epidemiologic intelligence, development, of international
agreements concerned with health, standardizations of vaccines and
pharmaceuticals, and dissemination of knowledge through meetings of experts
and technical reports) and services to governments.