Models for understanding Health and Disease
Three basic approaches for explaining how health and illness occur
- Views health and illness at an individual level
- Health is understood in terms of absence of disease rather than as an
integrated sense of well being.
- It is a curative and preventive approach
- Much of the appeal in this approach come from dramatic technological
advances in medical treatment over the last century such as surgery.
- The biomedical approach will ask the patient to take medical drugs instead
of changing his behavior to a healthier one. (Bus Driver example)
-Views health and illness primarily as consequence of individual or
household actions and beliefs.
-Results either as a reward for healthy living or an outcome for poor lifestyle
- Primarily focuses on changing of personal attitudes through education and
social counseling in order to achieve desirable health outcomes
- According to this approach a patient should make better health choices and
take care of the body by taking proper rest instead of getting drugged up
(Bus Driver example)
Political Economy model
-Considers the political, social, cultural and economic contexts in which
disease and illness arise
-Also examines the ways in which societal structures interact with particular
conditions that lead to good or ill health
-This approach views health as a function of linked determinants that
operate at multiple levels: individual, household, community, workplace,
social capital, nation and global political.
- These determinants need to addressed in order to improve health
conditions, through public policy that improves working conditions,
transportation, medical and social care etc.
-has the greatest explanatory capacity out of the three models.