oCriticism: assumes that ppl are perfect decision makers w/ day to day
control over work & neighborhood conditions, indi approach removes
responsibility for change from govt, private business and other actors.
oex: hygiene, genetic factors
The Influence of Living Conditions (Community and household)
-Numerous ailments result from poor living conditions… cardiovascular,
respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine, nutritional/metabolic disease, injuries and
violence. 18mil (1/3 of all) deaths = directly attributed to conditions of povery.
Water and sanitation
-1/6th of the world lives w/o adequate water supply
-Almost half of the world’s populations (2.6bil) lack access to even the most basic
sanitations and must resort to using fields and ditches… mostly in rural areas
-Access to an in house water connection is closely associated w/ infant mortality.
-Connection between water/sanitation and health is complex. Ex: WHO says
washing hands reduces diarrheal diseases by 50%, but its not simply a matter of
habits, but rests on sufficient access to clean water (and soap)
-Women/girls/refugees particularly affected by poor water supply. They are
responsible for getting water can get injured, assaulted, and they miss school
Nutrition and food security
-Food security: availability of and access to sufficient qualities of nutritious food
-Food sovereignty: self determination in the production and consumption of foods
in terms socially, economically, and culturally consistent w/ local practices
-50% of child deaths, a result of poor nutrition/under nutrition
-Mainstream medical community leaves the structural factors of food distribution
and production unaddressed. Only addresses through clinical approaches.
-Malnutrition, today, is largely associated w/ “empty calories”. Chemically
processed food that not only has little nutritional value, but can cause various
diseases. Ex: certain cancers, obesity, cardiovascular disease, etc.
-1/7th of the world have a severe hunger problem. Hunger and famine are caused
more by the economics of maldistribution than by food shortages
-Although tradition, culture, and household resources play an important role,
dietary patters are increasingly influenced by the industrialization of food
production. Processed food = cheaper/ calorie than fresh produce.
-1/3rd of global grocery sales are in the hands of 30 food retailers, and 90% of
worlds grain trade is controlled by just 5 companies. This affects another
determinant of health local sustainable farming practices.
Housing and human settlements
-Provides safety, stability, rest and leisure, and conditions that foster physical and