IDSB04H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Overdrafting, Demographic Transition, International Health Division


Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn
Chapter
2

Page:
of 6
Chapter 2: The historical origins of modern international health
¾ Civilizations as early as the ancient Chinese, Egyptian, Greco-Roman and Mesoamerican had
v]vÀ}]vµo]ZoZuµX/Áv[µv]oZD]oPZµo]ZoZ
expanded beyond local regions.
¾ In Europe the two major pandemics were the Plague of Justinian in 542 CE that spanned from
Asia to Ireland and then the Black Death in the 14th century
o With the Black Death early attempts at international disease control involved
quarantines cities, in particular preventing access by ships, and cordon sanitaire, which
]o]Zuv}(^}o]vPvÇ}(}o}P}}}]]}v]
P]}vY Venice established the first lazaretto in 1403, a quarantine station to hold and
]]v(uvvP}_~íõXWµo]ZoZ}Áµ}}v
international health authority.
o Girolomo Fracastoro, a Veronese physician-scholar, postulated that the plague could
be transmitted via direct contact or the atmosphere which was used as justification for
quarantine measures
o By the 18th century new environmental engineering methods were being implemented
µZ^]u}ÀÀv]o]}vU]vP}(PvvÁUov]vPYXu]P]}vU
and the burial of PP_í
¾ The rise of European imperialism
o European imperialism began in the 15th century with the Portuguese attack on Muslim
settlements I 1415
o Imperialism was somewhat an expansion of the Crusades as it can be seen with
Europeans incorporating desire to proliferate Christianity as one of their motives with
the ever present Islamic influence.
o In 17th century Iberian dominance was challenged when the English and Dutch pursued
interests establishing colonies worldwide under European political control
o Health consequences of imperialism can be seen in the high death toll of indigenous
people invaded as the Bishop Bartolomew de las Casas noted in Antilles upon and after
}uµ[]ÀoX^uoo}Æo}}v]µZ]PZ}Z]v}µÇ]vÀX
o Medical practitioners had originally been brought to treat military men, but with the
establishment of colonies began to treat the colonists as well as establish rules for
medical practices.
o With growing interest in indigenous knowledge of medicines, Martin de la Cruz was the
first to catalogue indigenous healing knowledge in his Codex Badianus of 1552 produced
for the Spanish emperor.
Colonial Spanish and Portuguese administrations founded medical faculties and
}}vv^Z]ZÇ}(u]o]]}vÁ o]ZYZÇ]]vÀ]vP
urban elites, Catholic hospitals providing charity care and traditional healers and
u]Á]ÀYXv]vPZui}]Ç}(Z}µo]}v_~îï
Though observed many years ago by Chinese and Ayurvedic healers, Edward
Jenner is accredited for finding the vaccination for smallpox. t Bourbon king of
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Spain Charles IV in 1803 sponsored the Balmis-Salvany group to on an
expedition throughout their colonies to vaccinate people for smallpox (the first
mass health campaign)
o Death among the Mestizos and particulary indigenous and African descended
populations can be attributed to slave trade, work in mines, dispossession from land and
livelihood, crowded living conditions, ecological alterations making way for mosquito
breeding thus malaria, etc t though indigenous people suffered from diseases colonists
did as well: ex t in the Niger Expedition of 1841, permitted as an alternative to slave
trade to satisfy abolitionists all but 3 of the 35 Europeans died from malaria
¾ Slave trade
o Africans were used a slaves because (1) skin color was easier to spot if they escaped, (2)
they were believed to be physically adapted to work in tropical climates, (3) and they
were easy to capture due to separated social groups and limited weaponry in Africa.
o An estimated 11.4 Africans were captured between 1502 and 1870 and about 12-15% of
ÁZ]Z]]vZ^u]oP_X
¾ Health, the tropics and the imperial system
o dZ^}]_]}Z}vZÇ]oo}]}vµÇ]u]o}Á}(]v
cultural alienation and environment distinction between Europe and these locations.
o ^dZ]Z]vÀv]}v[}(Z}]v}(}]ou]]vo}Z]}(]o
explanations regarding susceptibility to disease, sustainability for work and
underdevo}uv_~îòX
dZÁv}v}µµu]}vZ}u]Á}ooÇ^}]o_t
XPXuo]vo}ÇXÀvµvoÇU}]ou]]v[(]v]]}vvPo
to address the interaction of political and economical factors with ecological
conditions.
o The demand for good from colonies increased the need for slave trade and later large-
scale hiring of contract workers which had health implications.
XPX]]vvPv}uµPPoo]vP}(Zµ]vZíôñì[
when the rubber industry became lucrative and grew them in the Malay
Peninsula. But with a paucity of local population and abolishment of slave trade
thousands of Tamils were transferred resulting in severe malaria, hookworm,
etc in rubber estates.
o ^/u]o]uZvÁas shaped by patterns of malaria infection. Rapid
Development, the building of cities and clearing of roads, and inadequate drainage and
ÁP]}oÆuo]]v(]}v_~îôX
It was Jesuits in S. America in the early 1600s that learned about local cure for
malaria using the Cinchona bark. It became highly demanded resulting in
depletion of the trees until the Dutch established plantations in Java which was
µ(µoµv]oZµÁµ}((]vtt//^]vPv]vv]À(}
development of synthetic anti-uo]oUµZZo}}µ]v_ô
Important people in the discussion of malaria: Charles Laveran discovered the
malaria parasite in 1880. Patrick Manson, British physician-parasitologist,
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observed ^}]o_]vZÇ}Z]ÌZZ]o]vlÁv
parasite and mosquito vector and influenced the work of the surgeon Ronal
Ross describe the life cycle of malaria parasite in mosquito and demonstrate[d]
the role played by mosquitoes in bird malaria. Givoanni Grassi emphasized on
the role of the anopheles mosquito.
o European conquest proliferated the spread of disease t ex. Trypanosomiasis (sleeping
sickness) had prevented the domestication of large animals but was then spread with
European commercial and agricultural activities.
¾ Motives for Imperial Health: Protecting soldiers and settlers, safeguarding commerce, ensuring
}µ]À]Ç}(Á}lU]u}À]vP}o}v]oo]}vvÀ]vP}((µvU^]À]o]Ì]vP_}o}v]o
populations (30).
¾
¾
¾ Industrialization and the emergence of modern public health
o European industrialization began in 1750 and involved a transition from feudalism to
capitalism accompanied vy social and demographic shifts (e.g. population growth and
change in social division with emergence of new classes, advancements in engineering,
chemistry and more efficiency in agriculture and overall production)
o ,oZ]uo]]}v}(]vµ]o]}vW^vÁ}o]]o}o]P]}v}]]ÌvUvÁ}l
health maintained productivity and o}ÇoÇ_~ïíUv(}P}}ZoZ}Àv
disruptions in trade
o &XtE}]v[o]o]]}v}(u}PZ]v]]}vP]vÁ]Zv]v]]o
high birth and death rates, minimal if any population growth followed with fall in death
rates as industrialization occurs then population growth and eventually low birth and
death rates.
Potential reasons for fertility decline: shift from subsistence agricultural to
factor work (smaller family size was needed to maintain household), increased
cost to have kids in urban areas, decline in multifamily facilitated child care,
change in roles of women, creation of social system for elderly care, less leisure
time due to work hour increase, contraceptives, and infant mortality declines
x Whether developing countries will follow the path of industrialized
}µv]]µ]}voµÀo}]vP}µv]ZÀv[ooZ
the favorable changes in social and health status of the latter and it
must be noted not all industrialized countries had followed a universal
transition pattern (e.g. Manchester experienced increase in mortality)
o The textile industry was important in northern Europe and with the innovations at the
time made it less restricted in terms of location of mills and very productivity.
Work and living conditions were particularly trifling given the highly condensed
populations increasing the spread of disease. Economic and physical safety was
a concern and it took time before workers organized themselves to demand
better conditions.
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