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IDSB04H3 (79)
Chapter 1

Chapters 1, 2 & 3

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Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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IDSB04 – Final Exam Notes
Chapter 1
According to the WHO, health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (the state of being weak/incapacitated)
It leaves out the dimension of spiritual well being
Addressing the social determinant of health (including adequate housing, access to clean
water, sanitation, nutrition, education, broad social policies & protections, safe working
conditions, living wages) is essential to assuring the highest attainable state of health and
well being
Underlying these factors are the political and economic factors that shape the distribution of
power and resources and influence the extent of inequality and the existence and/or nature
of social security systems in particular societies and globally
The concept of collective health was developed in the 1970s in Brazil and elsewhere in
Latin America
The term international health first came into use in the early 20th century after sovereign
countries began to recognize the value of inter-governmental cooperation and established
permanent bodies to address health issues that crossed borders
This new arena of international health nonetheless reflected the interests of imperial powers
to protect international commerce and fend off epidemics of diseases, such as cholera and
plague, that might cause social unrest or reduce worker productivity
Global health is defined as health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national
borders/boundaries, may be influence by circumstances or experiences in other countries
and are best addressed by cooperation actions and solutions
The term global health is meant to rise above past ideological uses of the term international
health to imply a shared global susceptibility to, experience of, and responsibility for health
Global health aims to address the health problems of both rich and poor countries, whereas,
international health principally covered the problems of health in underdeveloped countries
The term global health has also been used to assert US “global unilateralism”, allowing the
US to dominate the international health agenda
International public health is defined as the application of the principles of public health to
health problems and challenges that affect low- and middle-income countries and to the
complex array of global and local forces that affect them
On one level, the international health field is built upon the health-related agreements to
which most countries are signatories
On another level, international health is characterized by the activities that are carried out by
international, bilateral, multilateral, regional, and transnational health organizations
These efforts and agencies often regard international health as a public good upon which all
people depend
International health deals with the worldwide dimensions of the new appearance, ongoing
spread, and recrudescence of diseases, together with their causes and consequences
International health deals with organizing a humanitarian response to disasters and
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emergencies
International health is also concerned with disease outbreaks that could interrupt commerce,
manufacturing, tourism and other sectors – representing the interests of powerful economic
actors
International health is often understood in terms of the diffusion of ideas, practices and
techniques, principally from developed to developing countries
The social justice perspective on international health, by contrast, sees cooperation around
health issues as a collective concern of people “on the ground” and their representative
organizations, movements, and elected officials
What makes health international resides in the shared problems and aspirations of ordinary
people and efforts, supported by like-minded movements in other settings and those
transnational NGOs that respond to priorities and modalities defined locally
Chapter 2
ANTECEDENTS OF MODERN INTERNATIONAL HEALTH: BLACK DEATH,
COLONIAL CONQUEST, AND THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
Until the Middle Ages, health concerns and disease outbreaks rarely extended beyond
limited regions, except in the case of military incursions
Plague and the Beginning of Health Regulation
European healing involved a combination of local wisdom—knowledge of medicinal herbs
passed down from generation to generation and among popular practitioners
As rival leaders fought for power, and merchants became interested in the riches and
resources of far away places, travel and commerce gradually increased—the congested
towns of late medieval Europe had far lower standards of water supply, sanitation, and
hygiene than ancient civilization
The Middle Ages were bracketed by 2 great outbreaks of plague: Justinian (decimated
populations from Asia to Ireland) and Black Death (most destructive plague of mankind)
Bubonic plague originated in Central Asia and spread quickly in all directions.
Contemporaries has little conception of the origins of the disease, ascribing it to a
conjunction of planets or a cosmic, divine causes. Plague’s suspected spread through
human contact let to the earliest attempts at international disease control. In the belief that
plague was introduced by ships, Venice in 1348 adopted a 40-day detention period for
entering vessels—this practice of quarantine was minimally effective in stopping plague.
The cordon sanitaire was a protective belt barring entry of people or goods to cities or entire
regions. Venice established the first Lazaretto, a quarantine station to hold and disinfect
humans and cargo. The plague was dealt with on a municipal level as it occurred prior to
the formation of nation-states. Following the first plague pandemic, many cities established
plague boards, or even permanent public health boards, charged with imposing the
necessary measures at the time of outbreak. Hospitals became founded/established during
the Middle Ages in Europe. In the 17th century, plague boards were disbanded and many
towns took control of street cleaning, disposal of dead bodies, public baths and water
maintenance. By the 18th century, cities began to employ nee environmental engineering
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approaches to epidemic disease, which emphasized preventative actions towards improved
ventilation, drainage of stagnant water, street cleaning, cleaner wells, fumigation, and the
burial of garbage
The rise of European Imperialism
The colonial Spanish and Portuguese administrations supported the founding of medical
facilities in leading colonial cities, and built hundreds of hospitals across the continent,
segregating care for colonialists and native populations
A new hierarchy of medical practitioners was established, with titled physicians serving
urban elites, Catholic hospitals providing charity care, and traditional healers and midwives
—who melded indigenous and European-Galenic beliefs and practices—attending the
majority of the population
Religious missionaries played a large role in building and running leprosaria and hospitals,
intertwining medical and religious proselytization
The Slave Trade
As the colonial system developed in the 16th century, an industry of the capture, sale,
transfer and condemnation to slavery of millions of human beings began
Slavery was not a new phenomenon, but it was new in the sense that it was practiced on a
worldwide scale
Europeans selected Africans to be slaves due to a combination of factors: a visible
physiological characteristic—dark skin color—enabling control and vigilance over escapes;
perception of Africans’ easy physical adaptation to tropical climates where most agricultural
labor was needed (plantation); and dispersion of social groups and limited weaponry in
much of Africa, which facilitated capture
The Atlantic route between Africa and the Americas accounted for most of the slave trade –
almost 12 to 15% died in the middle passage before reaching American shores
HEALTH, THE TROPICS, AND THE IMPERIAL SYSTEM
Demand for food from the New World increased in Europe, and plantations were being
established that required either more slaves, or after the slave revolution, large-scale hiring
of contract workers (resulting in crowding)
For example, the rubber plantation that was run by the British gathered tens of thousands of
individuals from India to work on the plantation (in addition to the tens of thousands of
Tamils from Madras that were already working on Malayan coffee and sugar estates). This
caused severe malaria, hookworm, and other health problems on the rubber estates, causing
many of them to be abandoned and helping motivate Britain’s interest in malaria control
Tropical Medicine
Schools of tropical medicine were established in London for imperial purposes
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN PUBLIC HEALTH
European industrialization occurred from 1750 to the beginning of the 20th century
Replaced by merchants and industrialists and workers under the capitalist economic system
Population doubled and agriculture became more efficient and less labor-intensive
Industrial Revolution in England
Period from 1750 to 1850 during which factories and power-driven machinery were first
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Description
IDSB04 Final Exam Notes Chapter 1 According to the WHO, health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (the state of being weakincapacitated) It leaves out the dimension of spiritual well being Addressing the social determinant of health (including adequate housing, access to clean water, sanitation, nutrition, education, broad social policies & protections, safe working conditions, living wages) is essential to assuring the highest attainable state of health and well being Underlying these factors are the political and economic factors that shape the distribution of power and resources and influence the extent of inequality and the existence andor nature of social security systems in particular societies and globally The concept of collective health was developed in the 1970s in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America th The term international health first came into use in the early 20 century after sovereign countries began to recognize the value of inter-governmental cooperation and established permanent bodies to address health issues that crossed borders This new arena of international health nonetheless reflected the interests of imperial powers to protect international commerce and fend off epidemics of diseases, such as cholera and plague, that might cause social unrest or reduce worker productivity Global health is defined as health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national bordersboundaries, may be influence by circumstances or experiences in other countries and are best addressed by cooperation actions and solutions The term global health is meant to rise above past ideological uses of the term international health to imply a shared global susceptibility to, experience of, and responsibility for health Global health aims to address the health problems of both rich and poor countries, whereas, international health principally covered the problems of health in underdeveloped countries The term global health has also been used to assert US global unilateralism, allowing the US to dominate the international health agenda International public health is defined as the application of the principles of public health to health problems and challenges that affect low- and middle-income countries and to the complex array of global and local forces that affect them On one level, the international health field is built upon the health-related agreements to which most countries are signatories On another level, international health is characterized by the activities that are carried out by international, bilateral, multilateral, regional, and transnational health organizations These efforts and agencies often regard international health as a public good upon which all people depend International health deals with the worldwide dimensions of the new appearance, ongoing spread, and recrudescence of diseases, together with their causes and consequences International health deals with organizing a humanitarian response to disasters and www.notesolution.com
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