Chapter 6 Notes

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

of 8
IDSB04 Chapter 6 Notes
Table 6-1 and 6-2 have important definitions - know them!
Leading causes of morbidity and mortality
The three leading causes of death are non communicable diseases such as coronary
heart disease (CHD), cancer, and stroke
Denmark - High income/highly redistributive
High degree of economic development
High life expectancy and low child mortality rates
However high mortality rates from cancer compared to low and middle income
Egypt - middle income and partially redistributive
Life expectancy in Egypt is lower than in European countries
Average infant mortality rates but 6x higher then Denmark
CHD, stroke, hypertension, and pneumonia are leading causes of death
Nigeria - Low income, marginally redistributive
Poor health indices
Life expectancy is about 46 years
Child and infant mortality is high
Leading killers in Nigeria are infections: HIV/AIDs, malaria, measles, and TB
Approach to prevention and control
the practice of medicine recognizes structural development of health and illness but
focuses on biomedical and behavioral prevention and control methods
Prevention activities are often classified as primary, secondary and tertiary
oPrimary prevention are undertake to prevent infection or exposure, avoid the
development of disease, and promote overall good health
Immunization, seatbelt use, smoking cessation, condom use, and diet
and exercise
oSecondary prevention activities are aimed at early detection of disease to
prevent its development
Checking for disease through blood work, x-rays, or physical
examinations in accompanied by treatment or behavioral change
measure to stop further development of the disease
oTertiary prevention is similar to disease management and attempts to
mitigate the negative effects of, any complications or disability arising from,
an illness once a person is diagnosed.
There has been great success in reducing child/infant mortality rates
Within many countries, a child from the poorest population group is two to three
times more likely to die before his or her fifth birthday than a child from the
wealthiest population
The IMR is often cited as the most sensitive indication of a general level of
"development" and the sate of health of a population
Malnutrition increase susceptibility to infectious disease and is an underlying cause
of the majority of child deaths
In food insecure areas, breastfeeding provides a vital source for protein, and
oEarly weaning leads to malnutrition, morbidity, and death
Health of Adults
Adults form the backbone of the economy but their health often draws little
attention from policymakers and planners
Aging populations have particular health needs
Most elderly have long term care problems, such as cardiovascular disease, or
physical impairments.
Major Problems of older people include
cardiovascular, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, musculoskeletal conditions, mental health conditions, blindness and visual
Sexually Transmitted diseases
Common STI's: syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, herpes, HPV, HIV, pubic lice
STI's are largely preventable through barrier methods of protection (condoms)
The spread do STI's is largely determined by factors beyond choice such as
commercial sex, forced sex, migrant labor, gender disparities, and an overall lack of
access to health services
Womens health
Women in many societies have limited economic and social power, attain lower
levels of education than men, and lack legal autonomy
Women generally have greater life expectancy then men; they tend to have more
illnesses and physical disabilities.
Barriers to obtaining prenatal care include distance from health services, cost, and
womens lack of decision-making power within the family
Three main types of care are essential for pregnant women
oAntenatal care: % of women who seek care during their pregnancy
oPerinatal care (during childbirth): almost half of all births in developing
countries take place without the assistance of a skilled birth attendant
oPostpartum care: care after delivery can prevent life threatening infections
and provide support on issues such as breast feeding and birth spacing
Another leading cause of maternal death is preventable infections resulting from
poor hygiene, primarily in the health care delivery setting and contamination during
Mens Health
Higher rates of mortality then women
Overrepresented in many illnesses
While some illness can be biological, many of these differences are a result of gender
Diseases of Marginalization and Deprivation
Many diseases occur primarily as a result of marginalization and deprivation - that
is, extreme poverty, substandard living conditions, geographic isolation, and political
Can result from infection
Mass diarrheal infection results from large scale contamination of common water
Main determinants of diarrhea are structural factors such as water quality and level
of sanitation, as well as overall health-promoting and immune boosting
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) replaces lost fluids orally rather than intravenously
Neglected tropical disease (NTD)
Diseases that are neglected because less than 1% of the worlds population dies from
it every year.
Mainly in tropical areas