Chapter 9: Globalization, Trade, Work, and Health
-Focusing on neoliberal globalization
-Trade in goods, services, people, and capital is a key component of globalization
Globalization and its key features
-Generally speaking, globalization is the process whereby people are becoming
more interconnected and interdependent via particular political-economic
relations that work to compress time, space, and cognition. The process of greater
integration w/in the world economy through movements of goods and services,
capital, technology, and labour, which lead increasingly to economic decisions
being influences by global conditions.
--New globalization: pace at which it occurs is faster - combined w/ the hegemonic
(i.e dominant & largely unquestioned) ideology underwriting this process
**Globalization good or bad?
-how globalization affects the health of ppl around the world depends on who controls the
flow of capital, labor, & knowledge around the world, & who benefits from it .
Historical character and definitions of neoliberal globalization
-Globalization can be divided into several eras… 1870s, 1914, present time
-In the 19th century, global economic expansion was promoted as the key to
progress, shepherded by big businesses, trusts, and investors, especially in
Europe and North America.
-Main Tenets of the neoliberal economic model are that
-a) Unfettered free markets begin growth in annual per GDP
-b) Growth is synonymous w/ development
-c) growth is necessary and sufficient to reduce poverty
-Neoliberal economists also accept that financial crises are an expected norm in
between periods of growth, and that the state should do little to interfere. Also
assume that the state already plays too large a role in the economy and social
policy, and that state interference prevents markets from acting efficiently
-Neoliberal globalization’s key elements are the promotion of “free markets” and
the relaxation of trade barriers. Often the results are: 1) reduction of subsidies for
the poor, 2) cost recovery/user fees for essential services, 3) privatization of
public assets, 4) weakened role of government, 5) growing dominance of western
based transnational capital, and 6) high military expenditures.
-Neoliberal globalization has accelerated the growth of free trade zoned in
developing countries, “outsourcing” production that previously took place in
-Free trade zones also shift employment patterns w/in developing countries
-Neoliberal globalization… the political order is dominated by the logic of the
market, and the benefits of a “shrinking” world haven’t been equally shared
The global trade regime and the WTO