State of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and spiritual well being. Not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Control of disease focused on disease surveillance, standardization and sanitary treaties for mandatory ways to combat particular diseases. Social determinants of health is essential to ensure the highest attainable state of health and well being. Include adequate housing, clean water, sanitations, nutrition, education, safe working conditions, living wages. Initially coined to distinguish govn"t efforts to preserve and protect health from private actions. Later defined as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health through organized community efforts etc. Proposing that individual determinants of health do not act in isolation but rather interact in a complex fashion. Ex: unemployment can lead to social isolation, poverty and homelessness with profound effects on health. Developed in 1970"s more popular in 1990"s.