IDSA01 Chapter 12 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Leslie Chan

IDSA01 Introduction to International Development Chapter 12-Civil Society and Development  there are three different forms of civil society discourse:  the liberal tradition is concerned with “political development,” establishing a participatory form of politics and good and democratic governance; civil institutions and political activity are components of “political society” based on the principles of citizenship, rights, democratic representation and the rule of law; civil society is a countervailing force against an unresponsive, corrupt state and exploitative corporations that disregard environmental issues and human rights abuses  civil society as a repository of popular resistance to government policies and the basis of a “counter- hegemonic” bloc of social forces engaged in a process of contesting state and other forms of class power  international cooperation for development in which civil society is an array of social organizations representing “stakeholders” in a process of economic development, a strategic partner in the war against global poverty waged by the World Bank and other international development associations and agencies, civil society as an agency for participatory and empowering form of development Civil Society: The Itinerary of a Concept  civil society includes all manner of social organizations ranging between the family and state (the state being an apparatus composed if institutions such as governments, the judiciary, the legislature, the armed forces, and any other institution used to determine “who gets what”  social movements are generally concerned with disputing state power and bringing about a change in government policies or political parities in way not inclusive of participating in elections  there is a difference between NGOs and social movements: while NGOs are concerned about bringing about improvement in socio-economic conditions of the population by means of a change in policy of institutional reform, social movements tend to have a more confrontational approach in challenging directly the holders and agencies of economic and political power  forms of social organization:  associations or associational—sharing an organizational objective  communities or community-based—held together by social bonds and a culture of solidarity, shared sense of belonging  interest groups or class-based organizations—pursuit of economic interest or political power  strength and size of civil society is measured in terms of number of active social organization, density of the resulting social fabric, the networks that bring people together to act collectively to achieve or in pursuit of their shared goals and objectives, and the degree to which people rely on governments as opposed to their own social organizations and networks to achieve their goals and objectives Civil Society in Context  social change can be analyzed in terms of the agency (the strategies pursued and actions taken by diverse organizations and individuals), structure (the institutionalized practices that shape or limit action) and context (the specific situation or historical conjecture)  as the welfare state model declined in the 1980s (in which societies increased their reliance on governments) and the neoliberalist model arose in the 1980s civil society strengthened as the general retreat of the state led to a increase of civil society—globalization, democratization, privatization, decentralization, economic liberalization and deregulation The Economic and Political Dynamics of Development and Civil Society  development means a combination of improvements in the quality of people’s lives, marked by a reduction in or alleviation of poverty, an increased capacity to meet the basic needs of society’s members, sustainable livelihoods, and empowerment, and the changes in institutionalized practices or structures needed to bring about these improvements—was the reinvented idea from the Enlightenment post WWII  essentially development was an idea devised to ensure that countries emerging from colonialism would not fall “prey” to the lure of communism, in which the state was an active agent in the form of policies and programs  after the unprecedented growth and improvements in the physical quality of life under the state led model post WWII came to stagnant stop, neoliberalist policy arose with the support of the capitalist class in rich countries  the retreat of government from its responsibility for economic development led to the emergence of non-profit voluntary associations and non-governmental organizations that were enlisted by international financial institutions to mediate with the poor, assist them in their self-development efforts in return for acceptance of their policy advice The Emergency of A Global Civil Society: The Political Dynamics of Anti-Globalization  the measures associated with neoliberal policies in the 1990s led to a dramatic increase in social inequalities and disparities between the North-Sout
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