IDSA01 Chapter 13 Notes.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Leslie Chan

IDSA01 Introduction to International Development Chapter 13-Poverty and Exclusion: From Basic Needs to the Millennium Development Goals  the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are UN goals set for 2015 that target the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, the achievement of universal primary education, the elimination of gender discrimination at all educational levels, a large reduction in child and maternal mortality, a halt to and reversal of the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other major disease, and a more determined pursuit of environmental sustainability Why Should We Be Concerned About Poverty Reduction?  current ideas about poverty and the gap between the rich and poor have been shaped in the context of a “unique era” during which “both population and per capita income came unstuck, soaring at rates never before seen or even imagined” because even though the rich world was discussing techniques to prolong life, millions were dying from easily preventable diseases, lack of safe water, infections, etc.  Paul Streen’s four practical reasons for pursuing poverty reduction objectives:  poverty reduction can be a means of achieving higher productivity by contributing to a well nourished, healthy, educated, skilled and alert labour force  would lower fertility rate  good for the physical environment  can contribute to a healthy civil society, democracy and greater social stability in the LR The International Aid Regime and Poverty Reduction: A Brief History Economic Growth and “Trickle Down”  post WWII, Western states agreed to channel small proportions of their public expenditures into foreign aid for development countries, as ODA  popular belief was that economic growth would led to drop in poverty  “Kuznets Curve” by Simon Kuznets predicted that as primarily agricultural economies moved towards industrialization, inequality would initially increase but as more of the population moved out of agriculture the inequality would eventually decrease and the ripple effects of economic growth would result in a “trickle down” of benefits lifting people out of poverty  a new aid paradigm emerged in which:  all societies could modernize and grow economically in a sequence of historically verified stages that had occurred in Western nations over the previous two centuries  this process could be accelerated in poor countries through the transfer of resources and technologies from industrialized nations  leaders of developing countries, eager for growth and modernization, would sacrifice other values and would provide political and moral support necessary to achieve these goals  in the later 1960s, many developing counties demanded for a New International Economic Order (NIEO) that would rein in multinational corporations and foster beneficial changes in the rules of international trade  through the media the apparent failure of the trickle down became evident and doubts were increasing about pursuing economic growth as the pathway to development Redistribution with Growth  official discourse on development began to shift in the 1970s and it envisioned generating new income increments to increase the absolute incomes of the poor  redistribution with growth (RWG) had a clear preference for market over government mechanism and paid insufficient attention to factors that generated poverty and operated in an idealist conception of the need for a coalition of interests that would capture power and see some advantage in directing more investment to the poor Basic Human Needs  the basic human needs (BHN) approach which was productivity-oriented, aiming at increasing the productive income of the poor, spawned technocratic programming that viewed that poor as target groups rather than participants in development  BHN was not well received by governments in aid-recipient countries because it distracted attention from the problems connected with underdevelopment and industrialized countries joint responsibility for them The Washington Consensus  another paradigm shift occurred with the presidential election victory of Ronald Reagen in the US and Margaret Thatcher in the UK in the 1980s, as loans to most developing countries dried up and interest rates skyrocketed  in the wake of the worst global recession in the 50 years an enormous debt overshadowed the Global South and neoliberal structural adjustment became the order of the day, heavily pushed by the North  aid and poverty reduction took the backseat as debt service and adjustment took over and this called for a number of policy reforms including reducing external and fiscal imbalances, privatizing public enterprises, downsizing the state and promoting the private sector as the engine of development Human Development, but Aid Retreats  poverty was rediscoverd in that RWG and BHN resurfaced in calls for investment in the productive capacity of the poor and greater access to health care, primary education, nutrition, and safety nets for those excluded from the benefits of growth  the Human Development Index (HDI) was created and human development as a process of enlarging people’s choices was reborn at three levels: people to lead a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge and to have access to resources needed for a decent for a decent standard of living  the end of the Cold War brought hope that it would free more funds for ODA now that it was no longer tied to East-West security concerns but as Western industrial countries became preoccupied with their own fiscal and foreign deficits and other newly arising regional conflicts, ODA fell  the collapse of communism also brought good governance in play which will contested in terms of definitions, was essentially to make governments more accountable to the people they were supposedly serving Millennium Development Goals  stung by criticisms bilateral donor agencies and the OECD called for a global effort for goals that gave real meaning to the improved quality of life by sustainable development that placed a stronger emphasis on the developing country itself as a starting point for development cooperation efforts  these goals were presented in the General Assembly and later followed by the Millennium Development Goals, which were a modification of these goals  the SAPS of the 1980s were replaced with Poverty Reduction Strategy Plans (PRSPs) which represented two shifts: poverty reduction is the main objective and the plans are “negotiated” jointly by donors and recipients so that the latter will take effective ownership of them—however this reflected the neoliberal “one size fits all” approach that sees economic growth and open markets as the main solutions to poverty  however donors have not been prepared to come forward with sufficient ODA to fund their shares of the MDG agenda even though the MDGS can be financed within the bounds of the official assistance that donor countries have already promised  without massive new financial efforts, the gaps between aspirations and achievements would not be closed by 2015 even though some of the outcomes are attainable but that would be due to the actions and policies adopted in the Global South Who are the Poor? Definitions and Conceptions of Poverty  relative poverty is measured against societal standards which vary across countries, regions and demographic groups and also change over time  absolute poverty involves some measurement against a benchmark such as food costs, caloric intake or being able to write  people in modern poverty are just able to meet their basic needs but extreme poverty means that households cannot meet basic needs for survival, are chronically hungry, unable to access health care, lack of amenities of safe drinking water and sanitation, cannot afford education for some or all of the children and lack rudimentary shelter Income/Consumption  most common indictor for comparing the economic standing of countries is the gross national income per capita but till tells us nothing about poverty, the poor and rich, men and women, children
More Less

Related notes for IDSA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.