IDSA01 Chapter 19 Notes.docx

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International Development Studies
Leslie Chan

IDSA01 Introduction to International Development Chapter 19—Urban Development: Cities and Slums in the Global South  the world’s urban population is growing at a faster rate than the total population of the planet where cities play an important role in shaping possibilities for human development and economic well-being  urban consumption patterns are usually unsustainable, cities are large consumers of water and energy resources and produce greenhouse gas emission, and industrial and residential waste; dependent on rural areas but often expand and consume agricultural land Understanding Urbanization  urbanization is the transformation over time of a rural society into a urban one, has modified and continues to modify the spatial distribution of the population globally  elements of a city: a politically and administratively defined territory, a relatively high size and density of the population, the presence of a division of labour and functional diversity, social organization based on complex and varied interactions—is a center for economic activities and a living environment that houses a differentiated society  development and sustainability challenges associated with urbanism:  location, pace and scale underway are unprecedented in history  associates with a new geography of economic activity, political alliances and socio-economic outcomes in which distinctive forms of urban development, polarization, instability and environmental stress are emerging  are major resource users and producers of wealth  capacity, resources and political will to address urban, development and environmental problems are often lacking Urbanization Across Time and Space  urbanization and a spatial concentration has prompted humans to create new technologies and new political institutions and practices, leading to innovative solutions to urban problems  the history of cities in developing countries is marked by colonization, which has contributed to an acceleration of urbanization and the structuring of cities around colonial relations  urbanization can also be favoured by natural and political factors and public policies Urbanization and Development: Not a Simple Equation  the relationship between economic activity and urbanization is not mechanical or deterministic, considering restructuring economic activities and the advent of information and communication technologies  the term ‘urban crisis’ is used to denote the contradictory effects of urban population growth: fueled by individuals who hope for a better life, such growth has a social economic, ecological effects that weaken cities’ potential as places to live  urban growth has brought a sharp rise in urban poverty and these poor populations are the most vulnerable to impacts of climate change  some experts adopt a Maltusian approach and see population growth as the main cause of the urban crisis while others argue that the current crisis is a result of the capitalism system Cities, Globalization, and Socio-Spatial Fragmentation  four trends are apparent in the phase of globalization:  a rise in new types of cities that play an important role coordinating roles in global economy  world cities that serve major international functions, co-ordinating worldwide business networks and thereby exerting organizational and directional power  new spatial tendencies of fragmentation, fracturing, and polarization within globalized cities  metropolitans in the Global South part of this network of metropolitan areas that concentrate power and economic and financial flows are marked by the presence of an affluent class that is part of the international elite and whose lifestyles and consumption patters resemble those of other major urban cities  parallel rise in inequality, poverty and vulnerability  the poorly housed co-existing with those residents in luxury condos; the destruction of older, modest and working class neighborhoods to allo
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