Chapter 2 summary and answers to questions

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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Chapter 2 The Historical Origins of Modern International Health Plague and the Beginnings of Health Regulation - Until the middle ages, health concerns and disease outbreaks rarely extended beyond limited regions, except in the case of military incursions and the occasional ailing trader - The congested towns of late medieval Europe had far lower standards of water supply, sanitation, and hygiene than ancient civilizations (because people started to travel here) - The middle agethhad two great outbreaks of plague: Plague of Justinian & the Great Black Death of the 14 century (most destructive pandemic ever) - In the belief that plague was introduced by ships, the city-state of Venice in 1348 adopted a 40- day detention period for entering vessels after which the disease was believed to remit. This quarantine was minimally effective in stopping plague - The stricter cordon sanitaire a protective belt barring entry of people or goods to cities or entire regions was also used frequently in succeeding centuries - Lazaretto: a quarantine station to hold and disinfect humans and cargo, est. 1403 - Because the Black Deaths first appearance preceded the formation of nation-states, sanitary efforts were adopted and implemented by municipal authorities, one at a time, rather than by (non-existent) national governments - Dealt with locally, in terms of measures to dispose of and fumigate the bodies and belongings of the dead, as well as quarantine - No official system of notification or cooperation between city-states - Many cities has plague boards or permanent public health boards, that imposed the necessary measures at times of outbreak th - Plague boards disbanded in the 17 century but many towns took over control of street cleaning, disposal of dead bodies and carcasses, public baths, and water maintenance The Rise of European Imperialism - The Spanish invasion and colonization of what is now Latin America and the Caribbean had a devastating demographic impact on indigenous populations - Smallpox is believed to have been spread throughout Mesoamerica through distribution of infested blankets by the forces of Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes, though mortality from forces labour was likely higher - Between one-third and one-half of indigenous inhabitants were killed in the late 15 and early th 16 centuries by the military, economic, and social aspects of the conquest - Codex Badianus: an illustrated collection of hundreds of medicinal herbs, published in 1552, produced for the Spanish emperor - The colonial Spanish and Portuguese administrations supported the founding of medical faculties in leading colonial cities, such as Lima (Peru) and Salvador da Bahia (Brazil), greatly abetted by the Catholic Church, and built hundreds of hospitals across the continent, segregating care for colonists and native populations - Inoculation: prepared by grinding up smallpox pustules and administering the powdered material in a wad of cotton fibres placed inside the nose was effective but caused substantial mortality 1
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