Chapter 7 Book Notes

12 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
International Development Studies
Course
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7: Social determinants of health and social inequalities in health. BOX 7-1: **Social determinants of health: social characteristics through which living takes place. **Societal determinants of health: broader (poli, economic, social, and cultural) structures that shape health and health patterns. -Social inequalities (inequities): health disparities win & btw countries, that systematically burden pop rendered vulnerable by underlying social stru & poli, econ, & legal institutions. -Health Disparities (mostly used in US) implies differences in health status without necessarily implying the presence of injustice. The social determinants of health: What makes the underlying determinants of health societal as opposed to individual? - Virtually every bout of ill health or injury can be understood in societal terms. - Ex: Construction worker falls off building and dies. - At a population level, patters of premature death and disability can also be examined in societal terms. - Societal determinants of health refer to those factors related to interactions among people and communities, whereas societal determinants emphasize a broader array of structural influences. Societal determinants of health framework illustrates how political economy of health pathways operate - The most immediate determinants of health shape exposure, susceptibility, and resistance to death and illness at household and community levels - At the next level are a range of determinants that manifest themselves largely in terms of social policy and govnt regulation. Ex: poverty levels, education, etc. - The final level includes the underlying social, political, economic, and historical context. Key determinants=classsocial structure, distribution of wealthpower, etc Check figure 4-2 *Individual Characteristics and Experience (Individual) - Medical models of health largely attribute ill health to personal features and actions. Every occurrence of disease, death, or disability includes varying degrees of societal influence. Life-course Trajectories - A life-course perspective helps explain how disadvantageadvantage produced through societal determinants of health accumulates over time in an individual Health Behaviours - Behavioural understanding of health largely ascribe health status to personal practices and habits. Ex: unsafe sex, smoking, alcoholdrugslifestyle approach - Health behaviours: known as lifestyle approach- covers only one small component of multiple levels of influences on health (differences in mortality bw working and upper class smokers). www.notesolution.com o Criticism: assumes that ppl are perfect decision makers w day to day control over work & neighborhood conditions, indi approach removes responsibility for change from govt, private business and other actors. o ex: hygiene, genetic factors The Influence of Living Conditions (Community and household) - Numerous ailments result from poor living conditions cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine, nutritionalmetabolic disease, injuries and violence. 18mil (13 of all) deaths = directly attributed to conditions of povery. Water and sanitation - 16 of the world lives wo adequate water supply - Almost half of the worlds populations (2.6bil) lack access to even the most basic sanitations and must resort to using fields and ditches mostly in rural areas - Access to an in house water connection is closely associated w infant mortality. - Connection between watersanitation and health is complex. Ex: WHO says washing hands reduces diarrheal diseases by 50%, but its not simply a matter of habits, but rests on sufficient access to clean water (and soap) - Womengirlsrefugees particularly affected by poor water supply. They are responsible for getting water can get injured, assaulted, and they miss school Nutrition and food security - Food security: availability of and access to sufficient qualities of nutritious food - Food sovereignty: self determination in the production and consumption of foods in terms socially, economically, and culturally consistent w local practices - 50% of child deaths, a result of poor nutritionunder nutrition - Mainstream medical community leaves the structural factors of food distribution and production unaddressed. Only addresses through clinical approaches. - Malnutrition, today, is largely associated w empty calories. Chemically processed food that not only has little nutritional value, but can cause various disethes. Ex: certain cancers, obesity, cardiovascular disease, etc. - 17 of the world have a severe hunger problem. Hunger and famine are caused more by the economics of maldistribution than by food shortages - Although tradition, culture, and household resources play an important role, dietary patters are increasingly influenced by the industrialization of food production. Processed food = cheaper calorie than fresh produce. - 13 of global grocery sales are in the hands of 30 food retailers, and 90% of worlds grain trade is controlled by just 5 companies. This affects another determinant of health local sustainable farming practices. Housing and human settlements - Provides safety, stability, rest and leisure, and conditions that foster physical and mental health www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for IDSB04H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit