Chapter 6

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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Chapter 6: Epidemiologic Profiles of Global Health and Disease Public Health Epidemiologic Terms o Analytic study, census, communicable disease, death rates, birth rates, , exposure, fertility rate, incidence, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), life expectancy, maternal death, MSM (men who have sex with men), notifiable disease, population pyramid, standardization, stratification, trend o Adjustment J a summarizing procedure for a statistical measure in which the effects of compositional differences are adjusted o Case fatality J (# of deaths from a disease # of diagnosed cases of that disease) x 100 o Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) J a measure of burden of disease on a population and effectiveness of interventions Leading causes of morbidity and mortality o Coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer and stroke are the leading causes of death J CHD is found in both high and low-income countries o Denmark (high-incomehighly redistributive) has a high life expectancy (78yrs), low child and IMR (5deaths1000births), but high mortality rate from cancer and leading causes of death (l.o.c.d) due to heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease and cancer o Egypt (middle-incomepartially redistributive) has lower life expectancy (68yrs), higher child IMR (25 to 35deaths1,000) than Denmark and l.o.c.d from heart disease, stroke, and hypertension o Nigeria (low-incomemarginally redistributive) has life expectancy (46yrs) IMR = 100deaths1000births (15 children die before 5yrs), l.o.c.d HIVAIDS, malaria, measles and TB J 50% of deaths due to communicable disease o ^L7 }KKL] o]ZZ Z}ZL]Z]o]K}L2Z}o poorest 20%...[among the rich] non-communicable diseases caused 85% of death and ]Z]o]_~: The Coming Plagues: Non-communicable Disease o Communicable diseases causes high DALY rates in low-income countries but non- communicable diseases are expected to exceed communicable disease in all income groups by 2015 o Though changing risk factors can reduce the death by non-communicable diseases, large-scale intervention can be taken (e.g. reducing salt in processed food, taxing tobacco products, and increasing disease screening and disease-control measures) o Prevention: Primary prevention J prevention of exposure or infection and promotion of good health (e.g. immunizations, pap smears, condom use, diet and exercise) Secondary prevention J early detection (e.g. screening, checking bp, blood tests, x-rays, physical exams, etc) Tertiary prevention J disease management Health in infants and children
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