Chapters 1, 2 & 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04 Final Exam Notes Chapter 1 According to the WHO, health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (the state of being weakincapacitated) It leaves out the dimension of spiritual well being Addressing the social determinant of health (including adequate housing, access to clean water, sanitation, nutrition, education, broad social policies & protections, safe working conditions, living wages) is essential to assuring the highest attainable state of health and well being Underlying these factors are the political and economic factors that shape the distribution of power and resources and influence the extent of inequality and the existence andor nature of social security systems in particular societies and globally The concept of collective health was developed in the 1970s in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America th The term international health first came into use in the early 20 century after sovereign countries began to recognize the value of inter-governmental cooperation and established permanent bodies to address health issues that crossed borders This new arena of international health nonetheless reflected the interests of imperial powers to protect international commerce and fend off epidemics of diseases, such as cholera and plague, that might cause social unrest or reduce worker productivity Global health is defined as health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national bordersboundaries, may be influence by circumstances or experiences in other countries and are best addressed by cooperation actions and solutions The term global health is meant to rise above past ideological uses of the term international health to imply a shared global susceptibility to, experience of, and responsibility for health Global health aims to address the health problems of both rich and poor countries, whereas, international health principally covered the problems of health in underdeveloped countries The term global health has also been used to assert US global unilateralism, allowing the US to dominate the international health agenda International public health is defined as the application of the principles of public health to health problems and challenges that affect low- and middle-income countries and to the complex array of global and local forces that affect them On one level, the international health field is built upon the health-related agreements to which most countries are signatories On another level, international health is characterized by the activities that are carried out by international, bilateral, multilateral, regional, and transnational health organizations These efforts and agencies often regard international health as a public good upon which all people depend International health deals with the worldwide dimensions of the new appearance, ongoing spread, and recrudescence of diseases, together with their causes and consequences International health deals with organizing a humanitarian response to disasters and
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