Chapter 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04 Chapter 3 Notes International Health Agencies October 21, 2009 Know Sidebar 3-1 Definitions Page 62 The Evolution of international Health after WWII Large imperial powers (North America, Europe, Australasia) colonized regions (Africa, the Carribean, South Pacific, and much of Asia) Each imperial power had its own health office, charged with control of epidemic, medical care, and infrastructure. The intense collaboration undertaken to defeat the Axis Powers during WWI helped US and western European planners envision a future of international economic and political stability through new institutions and policies. The new postwar institutions emphasized recovery of Europe, the formulation of trade, and currency stabilization; but they soon turned to issues of international cooperation, health and social development The Role of UN Focus on macroeconomic policy and eventually provide loan conditional on adoption of anti-inflationary and international payment policies (particularly for underdeveloped countries) Origin of UN: When representatives of 26 nations pledged to continue fighting against the Axis powers. In 1945, UN recommended the establishment of a specialized health agency with wide powers. WHO was responsible to coordinate the remnants of the prewar international health agencies. Many supporters of UN viewed international cooperation idealistically as a means of preventing war and freeing humanity from widespread misery o However, even from the start, the UN was designed to maintain the international balance of power, under the control of a handful of large countries From the Colonial Legacy in health to the Cold War Relations among the imperial blocks changed fundamentally after WW2,, as explicit colonialism was replaced with a less politically volatile and less costly division of world power. As imperial system gave way to a new political and economic order, the international health field and its key institutes were shaped by two factors: o The context of the Cold war- the political and ideological contest between Western capitalism and Soviet communism.
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