IDSB04 - Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04 Tharsini Sivananthajothy Chapter One - Introduction September 10, 2012 Key Definitions - WHO’s definition of Health: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and note merely the absence of disease or infirmity o This definition leaves out the dimension of spiritual well-being o Most organization frame international health in terms of disease control o Even those that support health systems prioritize disease elimination as ultimate purpose and disease control activities are prioritized o Good health and poor health experience at a personal level but death and illness are social phenomena  Social context of people affects who becomes sick and dies prematurely (living conditions, working conditions) - Emerging consensus addressing the social determinants of disease is essential to ensuring the highest attainable state of health and well-being o Adequate housing, access to clean water, sanitation, nutrition, education, broach social policies and protections, safe working conditions, and living wages o Underlying these factors are political and economic forces that shape the distribution of power and resources and influence the extent of inequality and the existence and or nature of social security systems in particular societies and globally - Public health was a concept coined in the early 19 century to distinguish government efforts for the preservation and protection of health from private actions o Public health defined as : the science and art of prevention disease, prolonging life and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and preventative treatment of disease and the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health – Winslow o Definition of public health is still contested - Social medicine was developed in the 19 century as a form of integration political action and health efforts - Population health was a concept introduced in 1989 which proposes that individual determinants of health do not act in isolation but rather in a complex fashion o Unemployment can lead to social isolation, poverty, and homelessness – profound effects on health - Collective health was developed in 1970s in Brazil and Latin America to emphasize role and agency of ordinary people and social movements in shaping health outcomes o Emphasize the political dimensions and determinants of health, and challenge the exclusive role of and reliance on the public sector especially where governments are repressive, unrepresentative or unresponsive to the collective needs of the population International Health - term international health came in to use in the 20 century after sovereign countries began to recognize value of intergovernmental cooperation and established permanent bodies to address health issues across national borders IDSB04 Tharsini Sivananthajothy Chapter One - Introduction September 10, 2012 o reflected the interests of imperial powers to protect international commerce and fend off epidemics of diseases that might cause social unrest or reduce worker productivity o early priority of international health organizations was disease surveillance, standardization and sanitary treaties calling for mandatory reciprocal notification of and measures to combat, particular diseases including ship and passenger inspection and quarantine o colonial authorities and nongovernmental entities – Rockefeller Organization undertook public health campaigns against yellow fever, hookworm and other ailments in the Americas, Asia, Africa, Europe and the Pacific - WHO was founded after WWII under world health – unifying term to reflect singularity of purpose - During the Cold War, international cooperation became characterized by continued economic and political domination of industrialized powers over developing countries, many of which had newly acquired independence - So world health never gained ground, international health covered the problems of health in underdeveloped countries Global Health - global health is defined as health problems, issues and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions o global health is portrayed as going beyond prior understandings of communication and accords regarding health issues between governments to refer to the health needs of people across the world, irrespective of borders, thus depolictizing the field o it’s meant to rise above past ideological uses of the term international health – as a handmaiden of colonialism o to imply a shared global susceptibility to and experience of and responsibility for health o aims to address health problems of both rich and poor countries o allows international health practitioners to apply a critical analysis of public health problems wherever they occur o refers to health and disease patterns in terms of interaction of global, national and local forces, processes and conditions in political, econom
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