Native speaker : acquired a language naturally. Native speakers are able to create other versions of an english sounding word, ex : soleme. this is solemic. We solemicize something to make it solemic and this process is called solemicization. Grammar : allows human beings to form and interpret the sounds, words and sentences of their language. Generality : all languages have a grammar: each spoken language must have a system of knowledge that encompasses sound and meaning as well as form and structure. Parity : all grammars are equal: all grammars tell speakers how to form and interpret the words and sentences of their language. Mutability : grammars change over time: ex : addition of news words such as blog, morphing internet, e-business, podcast and cyberspace to english vocab. Phonetic : the articulation and perception of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics : physiological mechanisms of speech production.