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Chapter 10

chapter 10

Course Code
Chandan Narayan

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Chapter 11
Even learning additional third, fourth and etc languages, it is terms as
Second language acquisition
Bilingualism: interesting phenomenon of children simultaneously acquiring
two languages is generally investigated in the field
Linguistics concerns with the mental grammar and psychology shifts from
behaviourism to cognitive > crucial for SLA
oLinguistics provide the sophisticated and accurate descriptions of
what people are learning; Psychology provides the theories
Adults learning L2 are subject to an influence that is absent from the childs
situation: the first language itself
oL1 > Interlanguage Grammar < L2
Interlanguage grammar: it is a system of mental representations influenced
by both the first and second language and has features of each
Transfers: used to describe the process whereby a feature or rule form a
learners first language is carried over to the IL grammar
Certain resemblance can be traced from first language to second languages
Fossilized - the interlanguage grammar stops changing
Target: what is to be acquired
Communicative competence: A speakers knowledge of the linguistic and
social rules or principles for language production or perception
Grammatical competence: Competence in the structural aspects of
language at or below the sentence level
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Textual competence: involved with the knowledge of well-formedness above
the sentence level, including the rules that string sentences together to make
a well-formed text in the spoken or written language
Sociolinguistic competence: able to use the languages in various of social
situations (formal vs. informal context)
Illocutionary force/ illocutionary competence: the ability to comprehend
a speakers intent, and to produce a variety of sentence types to convey a
particular intent in various circumstances
Performance: actual language use in particular situation)
It is difficult to tell whether or not they have a high knowledge of their
If they make a mistake in their first language, they can simply assume its a
performance error
Involves the interaction of a number of cognitive systems and has much in
common with other skills
When learning a new skill, we devote lots of conscious or controlled
processing to the activity
Ask humans we cannot consciously be process many tasks all at once (limited
cognitive capacity); shift processing from controlled to automatic
Segmental phonology
When learning a L2, the foreigner will substitute a sound from their native
language to learn English
oThe word the French will say it in [d] or Germans will say [z] 
Attempt to deal with the notions of ease or simplicity
oUnmarked structures that are simple and/or especially common in
human language
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