Notes for Chapter 15 - Understanding Phonology

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25 Apr 2012
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Understanding Phonology - 3rd edition
Chapter 15 Further Constraining Stress
15.2 Iambic and Trochaic Rhythm
- The majority of quantity-insensitive languages are left-dominant, QI-rd languages are rare
- Quantity-sensitive systems are more frequently right-dominant
- Through perception experiments, listeners group sequences of even duration (ta-ta-ta-ta) in a
binary fashion with initial prominence (táta) (táta)
o Trochaic rhythm: even duration, initial prominence
- Listeners group sequences of uneven duration (ta-taa-ta-taa) in a binary fashion with final
prominence (tatáa) (tatáa)
o Iambic rhythm: uneven duration, final prominence
- (x .): SW-labelled foot
- (. x): WS-labelled foot
- Three foot types: syllabic trochee (QI-ld), moraic trochee (QS-ld), iamb (QS-rd)
- Catalexis: opposite of extrametricality; the addition of a prosodically relevant, but
segmentally empty, constituent (syllable, mora, or segment) to a word edge; the addition of
an abstract syllable at the end of a word (treated as a real syllable by the footing process)
o Catalexis proposed in order to eliminate degenerate feet
15.3 Foot-based Rules
15.3.1 Quantitative Adjustments
- Iambic rhythm is typically applied to sequences of uneven duration, whereas trochaic rhythm
generally concerns even duration
- Languages with iambic rhythm often have segmental processes that aim to increase durational
unevenness
- Iambic rhythm languages often have rules that increase the duration contrast within the foot:
o rules that lengthen the vowel in the stressed syllable of the foot
o rules that geminate the consonant after such a stressed vowel (making the syllable
closed)
o or rules that reduce the vowel in the unstressed syllable
- Not all foot-based rules are quantitative adjustments
15.3.2 Foot-based Segmental Rules
- For the schwa-insertion rule mentioned, the stem final syllable not only needs to have a
rhyme made up of a lax vowel and a sonorant consonant, but also has to be the head of a foot
- Schwa-insertion and pre-r lengthening is specific to Dutch
15.4 Stress and Morphology
- Oversimplification: feet are constructed only after the word has been formed
- Normal stress pattern is interrupted by a word’s morphological structure in many languages
- In metrical theory, morphological operations (prefixation, suffixation, compounding and
cliticization) are divided into a cyclic block and a noncyclic block
- In the cyclic block, all previously assigned metrical structure is erased by the Stress Erasure
Conventure after every morphological operation
o Includes operations that do not disrupt the stress pattern of simple words
- In the noncyclic block, the Stress Erasure Convention is inactive; the previous structures are
still present after the operations
o Includes operations that interrupt the normal stress pattern
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