LINC 47 Chapter 2: Chapter 2 notes for LINC47

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21 Jun 2016

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Chapter 2: The Development of Theory
2.1 ~Before European expansion:
Most of the pidgin and creole languages started after western Europeans began establishing
overseas colonies in the 15thn century.
reason to believe that more existed in earlier times than the two that have been documented:
Lingua Franca and Pidgin Arabic
-Lingua Franca= pidgin language that was spoken in the Mediterrean at the 1200 as a Romance
Language contact seems likely to be nearly as old as language itself.
h/e, languages have not been recorded in writing until the last few millennia and missed
languages have usually been among the last to be written down.
Zyhlarz(1932-3) considered the language of ancient Egypt, 1st recorded in hieroglyphs in the 3rd
millennium BC, to have grown out of trade language.
ex. A pidgin that developed among several Afro-Asiatic languages which came into contact in
the Nile valley.
-If this is the case, it was essentially a creole language.
In any case the language of ancient empires from China to Sumer expanded along with their
military, commercial and cultural influence and it is quite likely that this happened via pidginized
but no known records of such speech remain.
In classical Greek drama, foreigners are sometimes represented as broken Greek speakers.
Hesseling(1928) explained the particular features of Tskakonian dialect of Greek by
hypothesizing that it had been creolized.
Possible that contact varieties - and perhaps fairly stable pidgins- accompanied the colonial
expansion of not only the Greeks but also the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans.
Hancock (1977) speculated about the possible restructuring of trade languages such as that used
in Britain during Roman times, but these remain undocumented and the few references to them in
old writings are unclear.
The earliest known record of any pidgin is a brief text of restructured Arabic apparently used
along a trade route in central Mauritania during the 11th century.
 In a manuscript completed in 1068 AD, the geographer al-Bakri cites a traveler’s complaint
that in the town of Maridi “ The Blacks have multilated(damaged) our beautiful language and
spoiled its eloquence(expressiveness) w/ their twisted tongues”, followed by a 10-sentence
sample of their speech.
-uncovered by Elgibali in a library in Egypt in 1982.
Lingua Franca= a pidgin w/ a lexicon drawn mainly from the southern Romance languages
 was used along the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean from the time of the
Crusades until the beginning of the 20th century for communication among Europeans, Arabs,
Turks, and others.
may already have been in use at the time the Maridi Arabic text was recorded, but it was not
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documented until later.
Around 1204 a version of the Apostles’ Creed in a pidginized Latin resembling later Lingua
Franca was recorded in Constantinople.
1st known text in Lingua Franca was written in Djerba, Tunisia, in 1353.
The Romance language that grew out of Latin offer no clear evidence of prior creolization : the
basic structure of their linguistic systems indicates no abrupt break w/ that of Latin.
While there is evidence that language contact and mixture, such as the front rounded vowels in
French and Germanic languages but not in Latin.
advancements of these changes may have been the result of language-internal processing rather
than borrowing.
2.2~ Early European expansion:
The earliest known record of the Spanish word criollo (whence creole) is published book in 1590
that was then translated into English in 1604.
the meaning for this word was expanded to both whites and blacks born in the New World or
other colonies, and eventually came to refer to their customs and language.
the 1st known use of the word in the latter meaning is in the 1685 diary of the French navigator
Le Courbe, who used the term langue créole for a restructured variety of Portuguese used by
Senegalese traders: “These Senegalese, besides the language of the country of the country, also
speak a certain jargon which resembles but little the Portuguese language and which is called the
creole language like the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean Sea”.
John Barbot referred to Africans’ use of Lingua Franca or “broken Portuguese” from his
completed voyage in 1682.
The period of commercial and colonial expansion got Europeans into languages contact, which
gave them a greater number of new languages that were not related to their language.
by the 18th century, this then led to an important impact on the course of philology.
 h/e, during the early period of language contact, these languages were the main object of
interest and study mostly for their practical use in trade and in establishing outposts and colonies
as well as in spreading Christianity.
-data collection were being made from the list of words and phrases during the time for the 1st
explorers, and then later sometimes travellers mentioned the contact languages that were
happening around them.
Jacque Bouton:
In 1640, this Frenchman in Martinique noted that the Carib Indians there used a jargon of
French mixed with Spanish, English and Dutch, and recorded a sample.
Père Chévillard:
a priest on Martinique
-noted that the Africans were “attentive observers who rapidly familiarized themselves with the
language of the European, which was purposely corrupted to facilitate its comprehension”.
Pierre Pelleprat, a contemporary, wrote that the changes in the language were initiated by the
Africans and then repeated by the Europeans: ‘We adjust to their way of Talking, which is
usually with the infinitive of the verb, for example moi prier Dieu [“I prayed to God”]’.
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The earliest known Portuguese creoele text is a 33-sentence conversation in Malayo-Portuguese
published in 1692 by Georg Meister, a German who had been in the East Indies w/ the Dutch.
 his spelling reflects his Thuringian dialect of German and a smattering of Latin and French, but
no knowledge of European Portuguese.
Such speakers were apparently more willing to deal with the creoles as autonomous systems, and
their representation of creole sounds was usually less obscured by the orthography of the lexical
source language.
The earliest known recordings of a North American pidgin are also from this period.
Samples of Delaware Jargon were collected by a Swede, Campanius Holm, in New Sweden in
the 1640s, and the Englishman William Penn published some phrases in 1683.
-translation by Thomas(1698) reflects the Englsih of the period: ‘Hitah ta-koman “Friend, from
whence com’st?”’
2.3~ 18th Century:
During the 18th century the Caribbean creoles came to be recognized as varieties that were clearly
distinguishable from their European lexical source languages, at least on a practical level by the
Europeans who came into regular contact with them.
 gradually became clear that foreigners’ speech (ex. "broken English”) had taken root and
become the local language of blacks, influencing the speech of whites as well.
The spread of Britain’s commercial empire during this period led to the emergence of restructured
varieties of English in Africa and Asia as well.
 1st published reference to a local West African variety of English is in Francis Moore’s 1734
Travels into the inland parts of Africa: “the English have in the River Gambia much corrupted the
English language, by Words or Literal Translations from the Portuguese or Mundingoes.
-In his book, A voyage to the East Indies in 1747 and 1748, C.F. Noble gave the 1st report of a
“broken and mixed dialect of English and Portuguese” in China
1st serious study of creole languages began in the 1730s when Moravian missionaries were sent to
convert the slaves on St.Thomase(1732) and in Suriname(1735).
On attending the coronation of Christian VI of Denmark in 1731, Zinzendorf met an old slave
named Andres from St.Thomas in the Danish West Indies.
-deeply moved by the slave’s account of the miserable existence of his people and their desire to
become Christians, the count organized a Moravian mission to St.Thomas and visited the island
himself in 1739 to reassure the hostile slave owners regarding the intentions of the missionaries.
At first, the German-speaking missionaries attempted to use Dutch w/ the slaves, who spoke
Negerhollands, a Dutch-based creole.
-when this proved unsuccessful, they began learning Negerhollands, which they called carriols,
in the early years (cf. Dutch creools, apparently w/ an epenthetic vowel), one of the earliest
known uses of the word referring to a West Indian language.
The Movarians were also among the 1st to treat a creole as an autonomous language to be studied
and written as a linguistic system independent of its lexical donor language.
Taught the slaves to read and write in the creole, leading to a series of remarkable letters such
as the count’s farewell address to them and their response.
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