Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Linguistics (107)
LINA01H3 (23)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4- Morphology The Analysis of Word Structure.pdf

6 Pages

Course Code
Chandan Narayan

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Chapter 4- Morphology: The Analysis of Word Structure Lexicon- a speaker’s mental dictionary, which contains info about the synaptic properties, meaning, and phonological representation of a language’s word Morphology- the system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation 4.1- WORDS AND WORD STRUCTURE Words- the smallest free forms found in language Free form- an element that does not have to occur in a fixed position with respect to neighbouring elements and may even be able to appear in isolation 4.1.1- Morphemes Morpheme- the smallest unit of language that carries info about meaning or function  Simple word- a word that consists of a single morpheme  Complex word- a word that contains 2 or more morphemes Free and Bound Morphemes Free morpheme- a morpheme that can be a word by itself Bound morpheme- a morpheme that must be attached to another element  The notion ‘past’ or ‘completed’ is expressed by the bound morpheme “–ed” Allomorphs Allomorphs- variants (different forms) of a morpheme 4.1.2- Analyzing Word Structure Roots and Affixes Root (of a word) – the morpheme in a word that carries the major component of the world’s meaning and belongs to a lexical category  Lexical category- a word-level category whose members have substantial meaning o The most studied categories of this type are noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), and preposition (P) Affixes- a morpheme that does not belong to a lexical category and is always bound Tree structure- a diagram depicting the internal organization of a linguistic unit such as a word, phrase, or sentence Bases Base- the form to which an affix is added 1 Types of Affixes Prefix- an affix that is attached to the front of its base Suffix- an affix that is attached to the end of its base Infixes- an affix that occurs within another morpheme  An affix must occur inside another morpheme Tiers- levels on the feature hierarchy that reflect the relation of the nodes and features to each other Problematic Cases Word-based morphology- morphology in which most complex words are formed from a base that can itself be a word  English has a sizeable number of bound roots  Other words with bound roots were borrowed into English as whole words 4.2- DERIVATION Deviation (syntax) – the process whereby a syntactic structure is formed by syntactic operations such as Merge and Move  An affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base 4.2.1- Some English Deviational Affixes Complex Derivations  It is possible to create words with multiple layers of internal structure  In some cases, the internal structure of a complex word may not be so transparent, so knowing the properties of the affixes can help Constraints on Deviation  The suffix –ant can combine with bases of Latin origin, but not those of native English origin  A derivational affix is able to attach only to bases with particular phonological properties 4.2.2- Two Clauses of Derivational Affixes Class 1- a group of affixes that (in English) often trigger changes in the consonant or vowel segments of the base and may affect the assignment of stress Class 2- a group of affixes that tend to be phonologically neutral in English, having no effect on the segmental makeup of the base or on stress assignment 4.3- COMPOUNDING Compounding- the combination of lexical categories (N, V, A, or P) to form a larger word 2  The combination of two already existing words  The resulting compound word is a noun, verb, or adjective  The rightmost morpheme determines the category of the entire word  Can be combined with other words to create still larger compounds Head (of a word) – the morpheme that determines the category of the entire word 4.3.1- Properties of Compounds st  Adjective-noun compounds are characterized by more prominent stress on their 1 component  In non-compounds consisting of an adjective and a noun, the 2 element is stressed st  Tense and plural markers can typically not be attached to the 1 element, although they can added to the compound as a whole 4.3.2- Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds Endocentric- a compound whose head (the rightmost component in English) identifies the general class to which the meaning of the entire word belongs Exocentric- a compound whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of its parts 4.3.3- Compounds in Other Languages  Most languages all have compounds in which the rightmost element is the head 4.4- INFLECTION Inflection- the modification of a word’s form to indicate the grammatical subclass to which it belongs Stem-
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.