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Chapter 4

Chapter 4- Morphology The Analysis of Word Structure.pdf

6 Pages
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINA01H3
Professor
Chandan Narayan

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Chapter 4- Morphology: The Analysis of Word Structure Lexicon- a speaker’s mental dictionary, which contains info about the synaptic properties, meaning, and phonological representation of a language’s word Morphology- the system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation 4.1- WORDS AND WORD STRUCTURE Words- the smallest free forms found in language Free form- an element that does not have to occur in a fixed position with respect to neighbouring elements and may even be able to appear in isolation 4.1.1- Morphemes Morpheme- the smallest unit of language that carries info about meaning or function  Simple word- a word that consists of a single morpheme  Complex word- a word that contains 2 or more morphemes Free and Bound Morphemes Free morpheme- a morpheme that can be a word by itself Bound morpheme- a morpheme that must be attached to another element  The notion ‘past’ or ‘completed’ is expressed by the bound morpheme “–ed” Allomorphs Allomorphs- variants (different forms) of a morpheme 4.1.2- Analyzing Word Structure Roots and Affixes Root (of a word) – the morpheme in a word that carries the major component of the world’s meaning and belongs to a lexical category  Lexical category- a word-level category whose members have substantial meaning o The most studied categories of this type are noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), and preposition (P) Affixes- a morpheme that does not belong to a lexical category and is always bound Tree structure- a diagram depicting the internal organization of a linguistic unit such as a word, phrase, or sentence Bases Base- the form to which an affix is added 1 Types of Affixes Prefix- an affix that is attached to the front of its base Suffix- an affix that is attached to the end of its base Infixes- an affix that occurs within another morpheme  An affix must occur inside another morpheme Tiers- levels on the feature hierarchy that reflect the relation of the nodes and features to each other Problematic Cases Word-based morphology- morphology in which most complex words are formed from a base that can itself be a word  English has a sizeable number of bound roots  Other words with bound roots were borrowed into English as whole words 4.2- DERIVATION Deviation (syntax) – the process whereby a syntactic structure is formed by syntactic operations such as Merge and Move  An affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base 4.2.1- Some English Deviational Affixes Complex Derivations  It is possible to create words with multiple layers of internal structure  In some cases, the internal structure of a complex word may not be so transparent, so knowing the properties of the affixes can help Constraints on Deviation  The suffix –ant can combine with bases of Latin origin, but not those of native English origin  A derivational affix is able to attach only to bases with particular phonological properties 4.2.2- Two Clauses of Derivational Affixes Class 1- a group of affixes that (in English) often trigger changes in the consonant or vowel segments of the base and may affect the assignment of stress Class 2- a group of affixes that tend to be phonologically neutral in English, having no effect on the segmental makeup of the base or on stress assignment 4.3- COMPOUNDING Compounding- the combination of lexical categories (N, V, A, or P) to form a larger word 2  The combination of two already existing words  The resulting compound word is a noun, verb, or adjective  The rightmost morpheme determines the category of the entire word  Can be combined with other words to create still larger compounds Head (of a word) – the morpheme that determines the category of the entire word 4.3.1- Properties of Compounds st  Adjective-noun compounds are characterized by more prominent stress on their 1 component  In non-compounds consisting of an adjective and a noun, the 2 element is stressed st  Tense and plural markers can typically not be attached to the 1 element, although they can added to the compound as a whole 4.3.2- Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds Endocentric- a compound whose head (the rightmost component in English) identifies the general class to which the meaning of the entire word belongs Exocentric- a compound whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of its parts 4.3.3- Compounds in Other Languages  Most languages all have compounds in which the rightmost element is the head 4.4- INFLECTION Inflection- the modification of a word’s form to indicate the grammatical subclass to which it belongs Stem-
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