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LINA01H3 (22)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1- Language A Preview.docx

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Chandan Narayan

Chapter 1- Language: A Preview  Language is at the heart of all things human, which defines who we are (uniquely human) Linguistics- the study of how language works 1.1- SPECIALIZATION FOR LANGUAGE  Early humans were structurally like us and had the type of intellect that would accompany language  Speech organs have all become highly specialized for use in language: o Lungs- supply air for speech o Vocal cords- produce vibrations for speech sounds o Tongue- to articulate vowels and consonants o Teeth- to provide place of articulation for consonants o Lips- to articulate vowels and consonants o Nose- to provide nasal resonance during speech  What makes language special can be neither heard nor seen because it involves the way in which the human mind goes about forming words, building sentences, and interpreting meaning 1.2- A CREATIVE SYSTEM Native speakers- one who has acquired a language as a child in a natural setting Creativity- the characteristics of human language that allows novelty and innovation in response to new thoughts, experiences, and situations  The process that creates verbs from nouns  Verbs that are created from time expressions  Certain patterns of sounds have the ‘look’ of English words  Words are familiar, but they are simply not arranged in the right way to make a sentence of English 1.3- GRAMMAR AND LINGUISTICS COMPETENCE Linguistics competence- speakers’ knowledge of their language, which allows them to produce and understand an unlimited number of utterances, including many that are novel Grammar- the mental system of rules and categories that allows humans to form and interpret the words and sentences of their language  Phonetics- the articulation and perception of speech sound
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