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LINB09H3 (30)
Chapter 3


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Yoonjung Kang

LINB09H3: Phonetics – The Study of Speech Sounds Chapter 3-4  diacritics – additional symbols used to transcribe details such as aspiration  phonemic = /p/, allophonic = [p] [pʰ]  phonemes contrast with each other, allophones do not  substitution does not make a different word o minimal pair  different words which differ in only one sound  broad transcription: uses few symbols and shows little phonetic detail “/ /”  narrow transcription: shows more non-contrastive, phonetic detail “* +”  assimilation: the process by which one sound becomes more like another sound (e.g. ‘tenth’)  dental: an alveolar assimilates to the dental place of articulation following /θ/  retroflexion: an alveolar assimilates to the retroflexed position after an /ɹ/  inherent rounding: the post-alveolars /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ and retroflex /ɹ/ are pronounced with lip rounding (even before unrounded vowels)  the velar stops /k g/ are subscripted when it is followed by a front vowel  homorganic  a nasal that assimilates to the place of articulation of the following consonant  labiodental nasal: [ɱ+ “symphony” /’sɪɱfəni/  aspiration: voiceless stops are aspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable o however, after a syllable-initial /s/ or at the beginning of an unstressed syllable, voiceless stops are not aspirated: spy *‘spaj+, stem *‘stɛm] o aspiration devoices following sonorants /l ɹ w j/  coarticulation: the gestures of one sound are not completely discrete as to timing from those of its neighbours (e.g. two [tʷu])  overlapping: in the sequence of two overlapping stops, the first is released silently  “apt”  inaudible release: voiced stops are usually phonetically somewhat voiceless at the end of a word or phrase, and may be entirely voiceless: hip  taps: butter, matter, city = voiced, alveolar tap  Yod dropping: after /t d n/, /j/ has always been retained  retroflex affricates: the sequences /tɹ/ and /dɹ/ are sometimes realized as
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