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Karen Lyda Mc Crindle

 Context plays a role in linguistic meaning o External and real world  Tasks a hearer must perform to understand an expression correctly o Disambiguate the noun – club can mean golf club, or a club someone belongs to…all depends on context o Assign Referents – all golfers or good clubs…who is the speaker referring to exactly? o Determine quantity referred to – some – how much is some? o Illocutionary force of utterance – is the utterance depending on the context considered advice or is it an univeral obligation o Extract implication  Pragmatics – ‘action’, concerned in use of language in real contexts, cannot study language use without prior concept of word meaning, or without looking at how particular words are used in contexts Sense and Reference  Reference – concerns in what an expression is about o Frege distinguished between sense and reference (general meaning vs object which it refers to)  Fregean Distinction o 3 aspects of a words total semantic effect  force (question or statement?)  tone/coloring (differences in register and connotation, ex. Die vs pass away)  sense o words reference isn’t the only part of its meaning…there is also something called SENSE o sense – way in which we grasp or understand the actual referent, a mode of presentation of its referent to our understanding, gives the word cognitive value/significance o sense determines reference, they are forms of our thought o sense  objective, shared, non private mode of presentation, allows people to talk about the same thing for these reasons …do not differ from person to person o sentences also have sense and reference  truth value – whether it is true or false o Truth as the basic notion to this semantic theory o For something to be true or false we must first know conditions which make something true or false Reference, Speakers, and Hearers  Sense an expression possesses depends on the speaker ?  Reference is under the speakers control – 2 conditions to complete act of reference: o Only one object must exist to which the utterance of expression applies o Hearer must be given sufficient means to identify object  Codes are a speech style in which speaker and hearer have agreed to reassign conventional referents  Referential scope is very large considering how many things are meant literally/nonliterally, as metaphors, ironical statements, exaggerations  Successful and correct acts of reference
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