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Chapter 4

Psycholinguistics - Chapter 4.odt

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Department
Linguistics
Course
PLIC55H3
Professor
Ron Babin
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Chapter 4: Perception of Language Main Points • phonetics: study of speech sounds - articulatory phonetics: study of how speech sounds are produced - acoustic phonetics: study of resulting speech sounds • speech exhibits characteristics not found in other forms of auditory perception • phenomenon of categorical perception suggests that speech is a special mode of perception • perception of speech is influenced by the contexts in which it appears - use top down processing to identify some sounds in context • visual perception of lang is achieved through a succession of processing levels – perception of letters in a word context is superior to perception of isolated or unrelated letters • process info at diff levels Introduction The Structure of Speech (problems) • envir interferes with speech signal • visual signals = distractions • variability of speech signal – ex the speakers voice , rate they are talking and phonetic context Prosodic Factors • prosodic factors: ex stress, intonation and rate - general term that refers to aspects of an utterance's sound that are not specific to the words themselves - influence overall meaning of utterance • stress: emphasis given to syllables in sentence • intonation: use of pitch to signify diff meaning - pitch pattern in sentence = intonational contour - if there is a rise at the end = yes no question \ • rate: speed at which speech is articulated • homophones: ex two and too – mean diff things but pronounced same • function words tend to have shorter duration than content words • prosodic factors = suprasegmental Articulatory Phonetics • all sounds of lang described in terms of movement of physical structures of v.tract • air emitted from lungs and passes over vocal cords and into oral cavity or nasal • vowels: produced by letting air flow from lungs in an unobstructed way • consonants: impeding the airflow at some point Manner of Articulation • stop: obstruct airflow completely for period of time then release it • fricatives: obstructing without completely stopping airflow – passage in mouth through which air travels becomes more narrow – and this causes turbulence • affricate: stop-like closure then release like fricatives Voicing • glottis: opening between vocal cords • voiced: airstream forces its way through glottis if cords are tgthr -> which vibrate Acoustic Phonetics • can encode 25 – 30 phonetic segments per sec Spectrograms • sound spectrogram: one common way to describe acoustical energy of speech sounds • sound spectrograph: has set of filters that analyze sound and project it onto a moving belt of phosphor = making spectrogram • frequency = vertical time = horizontal intensity = darkness • formants: spectrograms have these series of dark bands – at diff frequency levels • formant transition: large rises or drops in formant frequency that occur over short durations of time Parallel Transmission • parallel transmission: diff phonemes of same syllable are encoded into the speech signal simultaneously - no sharp physical break between adjacent sounds in a syllable Context-conditioned Variation • context conditioned variation: phenomenon that the exact spectrographic appearance of a given phone is related to the speech context • manner of articulation: context conditioned variation closely related to this – manner in which syllables are produced • co-articulation: producing more than one speech sound at a given time Perception of Isolated Speech Segments Levels of Speech Processing • 3 levels of speech perception • auditory level: signal is represented in terms of frequency, intensity and temporal attributes • phonetic level: combination of acoustic cues like formant transition • phonological level: phonetic segment is converted into a phoneme and phonological rules are applied to the sound sequence Speech as a Modular System • cog system is modular if it - is domain specific - operates on a mandatory basis - is unaffected by feedback Lack of Invariance • lack of invariance: there is no one to one correspondence between acoustic cues and perceptual events - if no invariant cues for phonetic segments – how will you determine sounds and reconstruct the speakers intended msg? - this shows that perception of speech segments must occur through process that is diff from and more complex than ordinary auditory perception - speech is a special ode of perception • speech percepts based on invariant and context conditioned cues Categorical Perception • our job is to identify what the sound is not the frequency or intensity • categorical perception – a failure to discriminate speech sounds any better than you can identify them • 2 criteria determine categorical perception: presence of sharp identification functions and failure to discriminate between sounds within a given sound class • vowels processed more at auditory level than cons bc of their longer duration • categorical perception – reflection of phonetic level of processing in which a phonetic identify is imposed and all other acoustic features are lost The Motor Theory of Speech Perception • Liberman: perception proceeds bu reference to production - listeners use implicit articulatory knowledge (knowledge about how sounds are produced) as an aid in perception - sounds produced in similar ways but varying acoustic rep are perceived in similar ways - revised motor theory – said conversion from acoustic signal to intended phonetic gesture is done fast and automatic by phonetic module • motor theory: we perceive speech sounds by identifying the intended phonetic gestures that may produce the sounds Perception of Continuous Speech Prosodic Factors in Speech Recognition • these factors provide a source of stability in perception because we can often hear these qualities at a distance that would increase our ability to identify speech segments Stress • helps to determine what is coming next • detect stressed syllables faster than unstressed – only for speech • interpret continuous speech
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