Textbook Notes (367,790)
Canada (161,401)
Linguistics (106)
PLIC55H3 (14)
Ron Babin (5)
Chapter 4

Psycholinguistics - Chapter 4.odt

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Ron Babin

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Chapter 4: Perception of Language Main Points • phonetics: study of speech sounds - articulatory phonetics: study of how speech sounds are produced - acoustic phonetics: study of resulting speech sounds • speech exhibits characteristics not found in other forms of auditory perception • phenomenon of categorical perception suggests that speech is a special mode of perception • perception of speech is influenced by the contexts in which it appears - use top down processing to identify some sounds in context • visual perception of lang is achieved through a succession of processing levels – perception of letters in a word context is superior to perception of isolated or unrelated letters • process info at diff levels Introduction The Structure of Speech (problems) • envir interferes with speech signal • visual signals = distractions • variability of speech signal – ex the speakers voice , rate they are talking and phonetic context Prosodic Factors • prosodic factors: ex stress, intonation and rate - general term that refers to aspects of an utterance's sound that are not specific to the words themselves - influence overall meaning of utterance • stress: emphasis given to syllables in sentence • intonation: use of pitch to signify diff meaning - pitch pattern in sentence = intonational contour - if there is a rise at the end = yes no question \ • rate: speed at which speech is articulated • homophones: ex two and too – mean diff things but pronounced same • function words tend to have shorter duration than content words • prosodic factors = suprasegmental Articulatory Phonetics • all sounds of lang described in terms of movement of physical structures of v.tract • air emitted from lungs and passes over vocal cords and into oral cavity or nasal • vowels: produced by letting air flow from lungs in an unobstructed way • consonants: impeding the airflow at some point Manner of Articulation • stop: obstruct airflow completely for period of time then release it • fricatives: obstructing without completely stopping airflow – passage in mouth through which air travels becomes more narrow – and this causes turbulence • affricate: stop-like closure then release like fricatives Voicing • glottis: opening between vocal cords • voiced: airstream forces its way through glottis if cords are tgthr -> which vibrate Acoustic Phonetics • can encode 25 – 30 phonetic segments per sec Spectrograms • sound spectrogram: one common way to describe acoustical energy of speech sounds • sound spectrograph: has set of filters that analyze sound and project it onto a moving belt of phosphor = making spectrogram • frequency = vertical time = horizontal intensity = darkness • formants: spectrograms have these series of dark bands – at diff frequency levels • formant transition: large rises or drops in formant frequency that occur over short durations of time Parallel Transmission • parallel transmission: diff phonemes of same syllable are encoded into the speech signal simultaneously - no sharp physical break between adjacent sounds in a syllable Context-conditioned Variation • context conditioned variation: phenomenon that the exact spectrographic appearance of a given phone is related to the speech context • manner of articulation: context conditioned variation closely related to this – manner in which syllables are produced • co-articulation: producing more than one speech sound at a given time Perception of Isolated Speech Segments Levels of Speech Processing • 3 levels of speech perception • auditory level: signal is represented in terms of frequency, intensity and temporal attributes • phonetic level: combination of acoustic cues like formant transition • phonological level: phonetic segment is converted into a phoneme and phonological rules are applied to the sound sequence Speech as a Modular System • cog system is modular if it - is domain specific - operates on a mandatory basis - is unaffected by feedback Lack of Invariance • lack of invariance: there is no one to one correspondence between acoustic cues and perceptual events - if no invariant cues for phonetic segments – how will you determine sounds and reconstruct the speakers intended msg? - this shows that perception of speech segments must occur through process that is diff from and more complex than ordinary auditory perception - speech is a special ode of perception • speech percepts based on invariant and context conditioned cues Categorical Perception • our job is to identify what the sound is not the frequency or intensity • categorical perception – a failure to discriminate speech sounds any better than you can identify them • 2 criteria determine categorical perception: presence of sharp identification functions and failure to discriminate between sounds within a given sound class • vowels processed more at auditory level than cons bc of their longer duration • categorical perception – reflection of phonetic level of processing in which a phonetic identify is imposed and all other acoustic features are lost The Motor Theory of Speech Perception • Liberman: perception proceeds bu reference to production - listeners use implicit articulatory knowledge (knowledge about how sounds are produced) as an aid in perception - sounds produced in similar ways but varying acoustic rep are perceived in similar ways - revised motor theory – said conversion from acoustic signal to intended phonetic gesture is done fast and automatic by phonetic module • motor theory: we perceive speech sounds by identifying the intended phonetic gestures that may produce the sounds Perception of Continuous Speech Prosodic Factors in Speech Recognition • these factors provide a source of stability in perception because we can often hear these qualities at a distance that would increase our ability to identify speech segments Stress • helps to determine what is coming next • detect stressed syllables faster than unstressed – only for speech • interpret continuous speech
More Less

Related notes for PLIC55H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.