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Chapter 1

Psycholingu - Chapter 1.odt

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Department
Linguistics
Course
PLIC55H3
Professor
Ron Babin
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Chapter 1: Introduction – Themes of Psycholinguistics Main Points • psycholingu is the study of how individuals comprehend, produce and acquire language • the study of psycholinguistics is a part of the field of cog sci – cog sci reflects the insights of psycho, lingu and fields like artificial intelligence • psycholingu stresses the knowledge of lang and cognitive processes involved in language use • psycholinguists are interested in social rules involved in lang use and brain mechanisms associated with lang • interest in psycholinu began in 1950s Introduction • psycho of lang deals with mental processes that are involved in language use • three sets of processes: language comprehension (how we perceive and understand speech and written lang), language production (how we construct an utterance, from idea to completed sentence) and lang acquisition • psycholinguistic: psychological study of langauge The Scope of Psycholinguistics • psycholingu part of cognitive sci • cognitive science: interdisciplinary venture that draws into psycho, lingu, computer sci, neurosci, and philo - study prob solving memory imagery and lang • linguistics: branch of sci that studies origin, structure and use of lang Language Processes and Linguistic Knowledge • psycholingu 2 questions • first question: what knowledge of lang is needed for us to use language - distinction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge: tacit is the knowledge of how to perform acts – explicit knowledge is knowledge of processes or mechanisms used in these acts - sometimes know how to do something without knowing how we do it - distinguish knowing how to speak and knowing processes involved - most of our lingu knowledge is tacit rather than explicit • 4 areas of lang knowledge: semantics (meaning of sentences and words), syntax (grammatical arrangement of words within sentence), phonology (system of sounds in lang), pragmatics (social rules in language use) • second question: what cog processes are involved in ordinary use of language - in conversation - processes like perception, memory and thinking Four Language Examples • garden path sentences: subjective impression is one of following a garden path to a predictable destination until it is obvious that you were mistaken in your original interpretation and forced to backtrack and reinterpret the sentence - store two diff meanings for a word – part of our semantic knowledge - in our semantic knowledge we also have relationships between words - we choose which words seems to be the most appropriate – mental work • indirect requests more polite than direct – part of our pragmatic knowledge of language – as “requests” - these requests force us to consider lang in social context - sociolinguistics: study of relationship between lang and social behaviour • aphasia: language disorder due to brain damage - ex Wernicke's aphasia (breakdown in semantics – speech smooth - neurolinguistics: study of the relationship between the brain and lang - brain injuries let us analyze an apparently unified program of lang abilities into its separate components and raise questions about how abilities become integrated in normal adult • language acquisition: - children usually express themselves in two words at a time by elimination clo
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