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Chapter 1-10

MDSA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-10: Tape Recorder, Paperback, Npr

Media Studies
Course Code
Michael Petit

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Chapter 1
Culture is narrowly associated with art, the unique forms of creative expression that give
pleasure and set standards about what is true, good, and beautiful
However culture can be viewed more broadly as the ways in which people live and
represent themselves at particular historical times
Society’s modes of communication is the creation and use of symbol systems that
convey information and meaning ( language, morse code, motion pictures, and one zero
binary computer codes)
Culture can be defined as the symbols of expression that individuals, groups, and
societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values
Cultural values and ideals are transmitted through the media. Many cosmetics
advertisements show beautiful people using a compnay’s product; this implies that
anyone who buys the products can obtain such ideal beauty.
Mass media are the cultural industries – the channels of communication – that produce
and distribute songs, novels, TV shows, newspapers, movies, video games, internet
services, and other cultural products to large numbers of people.
A process that many academics, critics, and media professionals began calling
convergence with the arrival of the internet
Early books – before the invention of the printing press, books were copied by hand in a
labor – intensive process. This beautifully illuminated page is form an Italian bile made in
the early 1300s
Digital communication is the electronic signals that are reassembled as a precise
reproduction of , say, a TV picture, a magazine article, a song or a telephone voice
Bloggers are people who post commentary on cultural, personal, and political – opinion
based websites
Mass media channels are newspapers, book,s magazines, radio, television or internet
Messages are programs, texts images, sounds, and ads
Gate keepers are news editors, executive producers, and other media managers
Electronic era is the rise of factories and production buildings.
Selective exposure are people typically seek message and produce meanings that
correspond to their own cultural beliefs , values, and interest

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Media innovations has 4 stages
oEmergence/novelty stage – inventors and technicians try to solve a particular
problem,such as making pictures move, transmitting messages form ship to
shore, or sending mail electornically
oEntrepreneurial stage – inventors and investors determine a practical and
marketable use for the new device. Part of the internet also had its roots in the
ideas of military leaders, who wanted a communicationsystemsthat was
decentralized and distributed widely enough to survive nuclear war or
oMass medium stage – business figure out how to market the new device or
medium as a consumer product
oConvergence stage – older media are reconfigured in various forms on newer
media, does nto mean older forms cease to exist
Cross platform by media markets describes a business model that involves consolidating
various media holdings, such as cable conenctions, mphone services, television
transmission, under a corporate umbrella
The goal is to better manage resources and maximize profits
onarrative is the varied media institutions and outlets
though a categories may change over time from one society to another, two metaphors
offer contrasting views about the way culture operates in our daily lives: culture as a
hierarchy, represented by a skyscraper model, and culture as a process, represented by
a map model
top floors of the buildings house high culture, such as ballet, the symphony art
museums, and classicliterature
the bottom floors. The more popular ones – the low culture, includes such icons as soap
operas, rock music, radio shock jock, and video games
top floor is referred to as good taste, whilelow class is junk
Big Mac theory – view that suggests that people are so addicted to mass produced
media menus that they lose their discriminating taste for finer fare and, much worse,
their ability to see and challenge social inequalities
Culture as a map – in this map, culture is not ranked as high or low, but the model shows
culture as spreading out in several directions across a variety of dimensions. For
example, some cultural forms can be familiar, innovative and challenginglike harry potter
books and movies. This model accounts for the complexity of individualtastes and

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experiences. The map model also suggests that culture is a process by which we
produce meaning – I.E. make our lives meaningful – as well as a complex collection of
media products and texts. The map shown is just one interpretation of culture.
Modern period is beginning with industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and
extending until about mid – twentieth century
4 major features that resonate best with changes across media and culture are :
effieciency, individualism, rationalism, and progress
Modernization is to create efficient manufacturing centers, produce inexpensive products
, make commerce more profitable
The modern mantra has bene “form follow sfunction: ec: the growing population of big
cities placed a premium on space, creating a new form of building that fulfilled that
functional demand by building upgwards.
Technology’s ability to alienate people form one another, capitalism’s tendency to foster
gree, and government’s inclination to create bureaucracies whose inefficiency oppresses
rather than helps people
Progressive era – a period of political and social reformthat lasted roughly form the
1890s to the 1920s
Progressive era fled to the constitutional amendments for both women’s suffrage and
prohibition, political reforms that led to the secret ballot during elections, and economic
reforms that ushered in the federal income tax to try to foster a more equitable society
Muckrakers – journalists who exposed corruption, waste, and scandal in business
Post modern period – form roughly the mild twentieth century to today – identified by
conusing array of examples : music videos, remote controls, nike ads, shopping malls,
fax machines
4 major features or values that resonate best with changes across media and culture :
populism, diversity, nostalgia, and paradox
Populism tries to appeal to ordinary people by highlighting or even creating an argument
or conflict between people and the elit
Diversity and fragmentation including the wild juxtaposition of old and new cultural styles
Another tendency of post modern culture involves rejecting rational thought as the
answer to every social problem, reveling instead in nostalgia for the premodern values of
small communities, traditional religion, and even mystical experience
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