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Chapter 5-6

MDSB03H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5-6: New York Herald Tribune, Queensboro Corporation, Queensboro Bridge

Media Studies
Course Code
Stacy Jameson

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James Twitchell- The Queensboro Corporation
- Monday, Aug 18, 1922 at 5:15 PM- MH Blackwell spoke at WEAF in NYC.
- He spoke from 15 minutes & it cost $50.
- 58 years since Nathaniel Hawthorne (America’s greatest fiction writer) died, & Queensboro Corp
named its recent development “Hawthorne court” to honor him
- It’s suggested that Mr. Blackwell had never read Nathaniel’s books and knew nothing about him.
- He advertised the apartment houses they had created over big house where people would have
had to shovel snow and mow lawns.
- 3 weeks later, Queensboro Corp. sold all its property in Hawthorne Court and Jackson Heights.
- Mr. Blackwell’s 15 minutes generated $27, 000 in sales.
- Nobody expected radios to be a form of advertising.
- It took 20 years for radio to become commercialized. Television was flooded with commercials
ASAP while the internet took a few months.
- The Post weighed two pounds with its 272 pages filled with 21 hours of reading and 214 national
ads on Dec 7, 1929. Its ad revenue was $1512.
- Radio was verbal, intellectual, and rational. It was the first electronic medium.
- Half of early radio station licenses were given to universities whether they wanted them or not.
- Nobody thought the Internet would have advertisements either.
- Children today surf the web while their grandparents used to listen to anything on the radio.
- Radio included religion, education, sports, and government programming all on same programs.
- Radio first started in WWI when the navy had to communicate with the ships at sea and the army
needed a way to talk to troops in the trenches using barbed wire as antennae.
- Titanic could have been avoided if the wireless operators were on.
- Too many separate patents were in many corporate hands.
- The Justice Department took them away from private industries and repackaged them inside the
‘Radio Group’ later called ‘The Radio Corporation of America’
- Radio receivers could even be made at home with a spool of wire, a crystal, aerial, and
earphones produced by Westington, who sold them.
- By July 1922, 400 volunteer stations existed.
- People didn’t care what was on as long as they received something.
- 1950s- Stereophonic sounds had sounds of cars passing by from speaker to speaker.
- People on the east Coast watched TV to look at California waves.
- Radio’s problem was that everyone broadcasted on the same wavelength and since the
transmitters were placed close, the signals mixed.
- 1927- Broadcasters petitioned Congress to help sort out airwaves.
- 1934- Law called the Communications Act, establishing the Federal Communications
- To hear clearly, AT&T had WEAF in Manhattan and suggested to link stations together using their
phone lines.
- Toll broadcasting- 38 stations were put in one system.
- Phone companies suggested that private interest could buy time for ‘ether advertising’.
- Broadcasters tried broadcasting live from football stadiums.
- Still, radio ads did not include store locations, samples, comparisons, price info, and wasn’t on
during family hour from 7-11pm. They only talked about what they were offering.
- Agencies bought minutes to talk about their products.
- 1920s- What did the public want to hear? Music.
- There were 90/732 educational stations left in 1927 but in the mid-1930s, university stations sold
their licences to executives.
- By 1937, more than ¾ American homes had at least one radio.
- Unlike print, radio was totally supported by commercials.
- Radios are free if you don’t value your time and attention.
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Fred Wasser- The Not-So-Distant History Of Radio Jingles
- Jingles are the songs between the songs. (The slogans of the radio station)
- Branding and imaging of the radio station that created its personality
- Shows would sound dulls without it.
- They were sometimes in the Top 40 hits.
- Two top 40 stations have the same music, & ads, but their jingles differentiated them.
- Sweepers- Jingles without singing
Timothy D. Taylor- Depression & Jingle
- The Great Depression took a toll on capitalism and the United States’ consumer culture.
- Branching out to radio helped ad agencies remain & grow.
- Radios and print did not mention the Depression.
Lizabeth Cohen- Segmenting the Masses
- 1945- New York Herald Tribune exposed market research & predictions using “you” in its Sunday
- Mid 1950s: Thomas Hine - “one of history’s greatest shopping sprees”
- “Populuxe”- fashionable & luxurious, yet affordable to many
- Marketers began to worry if this consumerism would stop.
- Baby boom kept it going but they wouldn’t become consumers until late 1960s.
- 1945-1959: # of businesses increased 45%.
- Manufacturers & retailers working for same market ran risk of putting each other out of business.
- 1957- Recession
- Marketers tried stimulating demand with new products (portable, coloured, larger screened TV)
- Appliances had higher prices for revenue & kept updating products, esp. fashion.
- Car’s ownership went from 5 years to 2 years Planned obsolescence
- “Middle-class” shared consistent set of Populuxe taste & desire
- Between 1945-1960: Journal of Retailing promoted selling to “average consumers”, “Mr. or Mrs.
- 1956- Product competition. Wendell Smith: Market segmentation
- It results in consumer satisfaction, profitability, secure market position
- Pierre Martineau- Rich men aren’t just poor men with $$$. They have different ways of thinking &
handling the world. What he buys has symbolic value.
- But before WW2, different industries noticed consumer tastes at different times.
- Products appealed to different “price classes” & income groups
- The ability to buy > than by taste
- 80% of a small market produces more revenue than 10% of a mass market
- Market segmentation = greater dominance & sophistication
- Marketing strategy went from selling to middle class to selling a wider variety of products based
on age, lifestyles, gender, income, education, geography, ethnic background
- Lifestyles, behavioural traits, and buyer attitudes were added later too
- This promised greater & steadier profits.
- An individual’s psyche shaped the decision to buy. (Shiny new car = masculinity, fridge =
mother’s loving food)
- 1970s: “Psychological graphics”- combines demographic and psychological factors to define
market segments
- Daniel Yankelovich- Three types of consumers: Those who bought low cost products, those who
bought for quality & style & durability & those who bought for prestige out of emotional needs
- Target marketing: often singling out children & minorities for pointed appeals
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